Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 2nd International Conference on Food Safety and Regulatory Measures London, UK.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Arpad Ambrus

National Food Chain Safety Office
Hungary

Keynote: Factors affecting the accuracy of measurements of pesticide residues and food contaminants

Time : 10:05:10:35

OMICS International Food Safety 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Arpad Ambrus photo
Biography:

Arpad Ambrus is an MSc in Chemical Engineering, CSc, Dr. Techn. and habilitated university professor. He is an IUPAC Fellow, member of the Food Safety Subcommittee of the Hungarian Academy of Science, JMPR FAO Panel (1973). He chairs the CCMAS, and supervises 6 PhD aspirants. He received the Silver Cross of Merit award, and the IUPAC International Award for Advances in Harmonized Approaches to Crop Protection Chemistry. He published over 80 peer-reviewed scientific papers, managed the Hungarian Pesticide Analytical Laboratories, the pesticide programme of the FAO/IAEA Training and Reference Centre, teached at the Universities of Debrecen and Szeged, and retired from the National Food Chain Safety Office.

Abstract:

Unit to unit (beetween oranges) and within unit (peel and pulp) variability of pesticide residues result in inevitable variation of average residues in test portions taken from the comminuted laboratory sample for extraction. Sub-sampling of large crops (e.g. watermelon, jackfruit) will further increase the variability. The patchy distribution of mycotoxins in contaminated crops has the same effect at even larger magnitude. To obtain representative test portions of 2-25 g from 1 to 80 kg bulk laboratory sample is a very difficult and challanging task. Nonetheless, it is very rarely tested, though. Neither recovery nor proficiency tests provide information on the efficiency of sample size reduction and comminution of the laboratory sample. Particle size of comminuted material is critical for reducing the relative variability of analytes, expressed as coefficient of variation (CVSp), in the test portion. The relationship of CVSp, the mass of test portion, mTp and the the upper 95th percentile of the diameters of the particles, d, in the comminuted matrix is described by Gy’s sampling theory.
The efficiency of comminution of laboratory sample depends on the equipment, temperature of processing, type and maturity of sample materials, therefore it shall be verified as part of validation of methods and regularly tested during internal quality control of the determination of food contaminants. Test portion size can only be reduced if the combined uncertainty of the results remain acceptable. Examples for testing the efficiency of sub-sampling and comminution will be presented in the lecture.rn

Keynote Forum

Malcolm Elliott

Editor in Chief, Agriculture and Food Security
The Norman Borlaug Institute for Global Food Security,UK

Keynote: The 21st Century Challenge: to Feed 10 Billion People Safely and Sustainably

Time : 10:35-11:05

OMICS International Food Safety 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Malcolm Elliott photo
Biography:

Malcolm Elliott graduated with First Class Honours in Plant Sciences from The University of Wales in 1963. His PhD in Plant Biochemistry (1966) was followed by a period as a Fulbright Scholar and Research Staff Biologist at Yale University (1967-1969). He returned from the USA to the post of Lecturer in Plant Biochemistry at The University of Leicester (1969-1971), he became Professor and Head of The School of Life Sciences at De Montfort University, (1971-1994), Chairman of the College of Deans at De Montfort University (1989-1993) then Founding Director of The Norman Borlaug Institute for Global Food Security (1994 to 2011) and Editor in Chief of the BioMed Central open access journal Agriculture & Food Security (2011 to date). He is the author of several hundred research publications and has directed the Higher Degree programmes of more than fifty Graduate Students. He was honoured by the award of the Fellowship of the Royal Society of Arts (1984), the Fellowship of the Royal Society of Biology (1989), the Charles University Medal (1992), the Gregor Mendel Gold Medal for Biological Sciences Research of Exceptional Merit (1993), the Jan Evangelista Purkyne Medal (1994) and the DSc (Honoris Causa) of the Bulgarian Academy of Agricultural Science (2006).

Abstract:

In 1970, when Norman Borlaug, “The Man Who Fed the World”, accepted the Nobel Peace Prize, he observed that “Most people still fail to comprehend the magnitude and menace of ‘the population monster’. If the world’s population continues to increase at the estimated present rate of two per cent a year it will reach 6.5 billion by the year 2,000 unless man becomes more realistic about his impending doom”. He observed that “it is time that the tide of the battle against hunger was changed for the better - but ebb tide could soon set in if we become complacent”. The harsh reality of this warning was recognized in 2008 when the price of wheat and maize doubled and that of rice tripled, leading to food riots in twenty countries. The rate of increase of the world’s population has not been reduced and in October 2011 it reached 7 Billion of whom some 948 million were chronically malnourished. As the global population continues to rise we must confront the question “how will we feed 10 billion people safely and sustainably”. We will need to grow more food on less land, using less water, less labour and fewer agrochemicals while we confront global climate change and avoid further dramatic reductions of biodiversity. Norman Borlaug was in no doubt that the problems could be resolved so long as the whole range of scientific advances is deployed at the earliest opportunity. Borlaug was particularly concerned that the campaigns of “anti-science zealots” are causing the potential benefits of molecular approaches to crop and animal improvement to be missed. The regulations that are applied to food safety will be discussed with emphasis on these issues.

Break: Networking and Refreshments @ 11:05-11:20

Keynote Forum

Kalanithi Nesaretnam

Minister, Embassy of Malaysia
Belgium

Keynote: Food safety, quality and environmental sustainability for palm oil

Time : 11:20-11:50

OMICS International Food Safety 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Kalanithi Nesaretnam photo
Biography:

Kalanithi Nesaretnam obtained her PhD in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from the University of Reading, UK in 1996. She is currently a Minister at the Malaysian Embassy based in Brussels, Belgium. She is also the Regional Manager for the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) in Europe. She started her career at MPOB as a scientist studying the effects of palm oil and its phytonutrients in food, nutrition and health. She has a number of patents and several publications to her credit and is best known for her contribution to the field of research in tocotrienols and breast cancer. She was awarded the Gold Medal for excellence in research by MPOB in 2001 and won the prestigious World Intellectual Property Organization’s (WIPO) Best Woman Inventor in 2006. She is well respected in the scientific community. She was a founding member of the Malaysian Chapter of the Society for Free Radical Research (SFRR) and is the Past-President for SFRR Asia. Prior to her current position, she was for six years, Director at MPOB in charge of the division covering sustainability. She has been instrumental in persuading the oil palm industry to adopt sustainable practices.

Abstract:

Palm oil is the world’s most traded vegetable oil. 85% of the oil is used for food. It is therefore imperative that the highest standards of food safety and quality be adopted. This high standard for food can only be achieved by an effective partnership between goverment regulators and producers. Oil palm plantations cover 16.4 million hectares worldwide which is only 0.3% of the world’s agricultural land. Nevertheless, oil palm has adopted environmental sustainability standards as a key driver. In Malaysia, oil palm cultivation has long advocated sustainable farming practices. The research and development activities engrained within the industry also ensure the industry remains a leader in the production of edible oil. The global market today is facing a potential crisis in terms of ensuring food security. The challenge is to produce and supply safe and nutritious food in a sustainable way for a growing population, which is projected to reach 9 billion by 2050. While demand for food is rising, the amount of land suitable for food production is likely to be limited, mainly through pressures from other uses and climate change. This paper will address some of the steps being considered to overcome these challenges.

Keynote Forum

Jerzy Radecki

Polish Academy of Science
Poland

Keynote: Electrochemical detection of Avian Influenza Virus genotype using ssDNA probe modified gold electrodes

Time : 11:50 - 12:20

OMICS International Food Safety 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Jerzy Radecki photo
Biography:

Jerzy Radecki is a Professor of Analytical Chemistry, and is working as a Head of the Department of Biosensors of IARFR PAS in Olsztyn. His research interest concerns developing of new sensors and biosensors based on the intermolecular recognition processes occurring at the border of aqueous and organic phase. Particularly, he is interested in functionalization of surface of solid electrodes with “host” molecules, which are responsible for “guest” molecules (analytes) recognition. He is working on not only analytical aspects of developed sensors, but also on the elaboration of the mechanism of analytical signal generation.

Abstract:

Avian Influenza type H5N1 virus is not only extremely lethal to domestic fowl, but also constitute a threat to humans including mammals and can cause death. Therefore, the methods suitable for early and fast detection of the highly pathogenic forms of virus are much needed. The detection and analysis of specific DNA sequences become an important approach in molecular diagnosis. Here we report on electrochemical genosensors devoted for detection of virus H5N1 gene sequence. In this case the sensors based on ion-channel mechanism, ss-DNA probes conjugated with amino group were attached on the gold electrode via amide bond derived from thioacid. The signals generated as a result of hybridization were registered with Osteryoung square wave voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- as a redox marker. To face the need of systems for simultaneous determination of few markers of one disease coming from medical diagnosis, we have developed a novel dual DNA electrochemical sensor with “signal-off“ and “signal-on“ architecture for simultaneous detection of two different sequences of DNA derived from H5N1 by means of one electrode. Two sequences of ssDNA characteristic for hemagglutinin decorated with ferrocene and characteristic for neuraminidase decorated with methylene blue were immobilized covalently together on the surface of 1 gold electrode. The detection limit in the fM range has been achieved with genosensors incorporated with ssDNA decorated with Co(II)-porphyrin, as well as with 3-iron bis (dicarbollide). The strategy based on dipyrromenthene Cu(II) redox active monolayer or phenanthroline – Epoxy - Fe(III) complexes have been also applied for the development of genosensors destined for detection of influenza viruses.

Break:
OMICS International Food Safety 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Nikos Mavroudis and Emmanouil Papaioannou photo
Biography:

Nikos Mavroudis is a Senior Lecturer and Programme Leader in Food Science and leads the Laboratory of Food Engineering & Separation of Actives (FoESA) in the Dept. of Applied Sciences in Northumbria University at Newcastle. Previously, he was a Research Scientist and Project Leader for Unilever R&D for 9 years and has been responsible for developing the separation expertise within Unilever R&D Vlaardingen, the Netherlands. His research interests are focused on Food Security & Food Safety, particularly relevant is his interest on remediation using sutainable separation technologies, on bacterial flow cytometry and surface decontamination. He has published 10 research articles in peer review journals and 12 patents/patent filings and his work has attracted 351 citations excluding self-citations.

Abstract:

Harmful compounds such as biogenic amines, naturally appearing toxic compounds (e.g. cyanogenic glucosides, oxalates, allergens), heavy metal and herbicide residues are typical cases of harmful compounds given that could either harm human health follwoing a long term exposure or lead to acute cases of food poisoning. The present communication is discussing the possibilities of deploying advanced and sustainable separation processes for selective removal of contaminants from the food chain with particular emphasis on industrial chromatography.

Break:
  • Symposium on "Formation and Analysis of Food Borne Toxicants"
Speaker
Biography:

Michael Granvogl has completed his PhD as well as Post-doctoral studies at the Chair for Food Chemistry (Technical University of Munich) under the supervision of Prof. Peter Schieberle. Actually, he is an Associate Professor at the same facility. He has published about 30 papers in peer-reviewed journals and has been serving as a reviewer for about 20 different journals. Furthermore, he is well-known as a presenter around the globe participating in the most important conferences about flavor chemistry, Maillard chemistry, and food safety related topics.

Abstract:

In the past, a lot of studies have been undertaken to mitigate the formation of the so-called “food-borne toxicants” during food manufacturing. But, in some cases, a formation pathway is not known or well understood, leading to approaches on the basis of "trial and error". Thus, beside the development of accurate, reliable, sensitive, and selective quantitation methods mostly on the basis of stable isotopically labelled standards, the elucidation of formation pathways and the knowledge of parameters influencing the generation of these toxicants is very important enabling systematic mitigation strategies. The lecture will demonstrate that the use of labelled compounds is not only recommended as internal standards for quantitation experiments, but they are also a useful tool to get deeper insights into the formation of food-borne toxicants. Thereby, the labeled compounds are used as precursors or intermediates to monitor their reactions in model systems or real food by mass spectrometry experiments, e.g., GC-MS or LC-MS/MS. In detail, the formation mechanisms of acrylamide, acrolein, and furan will be presented. Further, the development of quick and simple quantitation methods on the basis of headspace GC-MS analysis will be presented. Their robustness and reliability was proven in comparison to more time-consuming derivatization methods, exemplarily shown for the (E)-2-alkenals acrolein and crotonaldehyde by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) using [13C3]-acrolein and synthesized [13C4]-crotonaldehyde.

Break: Lunch Break @ 13:15-14:00

Michael Rychlik

Technical University of Munich
Germany

Title: Emerging, modified and masked mycotoxins in foods – Current risk assessments

Time : 14:00 - 14:25

Speaker
Biography:

Michael Rychlik is the Head of the Chair of Analytical Food Chemistry at the Technical University of Munich, Germany (TUM). He graduated in Food Chemistry at the University of Kaiserslautern in 1988. His PhD studies on the flavour of bread were completed in 1996 and he was appointed as Professor at the TUM in 2010. His group has been working for 15 years in the field of developing analytical methods for bioactive food components, in particular for vitamins, mycotoxins, odourants and lipids. For these compounds, he developed stable isotope dilution assays that reveal superior accuracy.

Abstract:

According to WHO estimation, about 25% of agricultural commodities are contaminated with mycotoxins world-wide. In cereals, the most common fungal genus involved is Fusarium. Major Fusarium toxins such as deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisins are regulated by EU legislation. Analytical food chemistry has developed accurate LC-MS/MS methods for controlling these contaminants. However, during the last years so called “modified” or “emerging” mycotoxins have been discovered, which are either plant metabolites of the fungal toxins or produced by other ubiquitous fungi such as Alternaria species, respectively. Targeted approaches have been developed to accurately quantitate “emerging” and “modified” mycotoxins along with multi-analyte approaches based on stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) for efficient mycotoxin control. In this regard, most Fusarium toxins and major modifications were included and detected in cereal products. Besides, major Alternaria toxins were analyzed and risk assessments along with management actions for infant foods were initiated. Moreover, non-targeted approaches were initiated to screen for other fungal metabolites. Despite the current analytical developments in metabolomics, mycotoxin analysis still is challenging with regard to accurate quantitation and newly identified compounds. However, risk assessment and preventing hazards for the consumers requires data on exposure and toxicological properties, which are still lacking for many substances.

Shaun MacMahon

US FDA’s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
USA

Title: Multiplex methods in the regulatory analysis of undeclared food allergens

Time : 14:25 - 14:50

Speaker
Biography:

Shaun MacMahon is the Branch Chief for the Chemical Contaminants Branch at the US FDA’s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, USA.

Abstract:

Food allergies affect an estimated 3% of the population and 6% of children, with an increasing number of people suffering from multiple food allergies. The 2004 Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA) mandated labeling of foods containing egg, milk, peanut, soy, wheat, tree nuts, crustacean seafood, and fish; these allergens are responsible for 90% of the food allergies in the United States. To enforce FALCPA, antibody-based assays such as ELISAs are commonly employed. While ELISA methods are generally sensitive and robust, they have limitations. As the kits are analyte specific, different assays must be employed in order to detect each of the different food allergens. FDA’s research efforts have focused on the development of methods capable of detecting multiple food allergens, including xMAP, DNA- and mass spectrometry-based methods. This talk will review these methods and their application to the detection of allergens in foods in the United States.

Speaker
Biography:

Jan Kuhlmann has completed his PhD in Chemistry at the University of Hamburg, Germany. He is the Leader of the Department of Chromatography at the SGS Multilab in Hamburg. SGS is a worldwide operating company for testing, inspection and certification. He has published 8 papers on analytical methods in reputed journals and is a member of several expert groups for contaminants in foods. He also is a Member of DIN and works as German delegate in the ISO subcommittee TC34/SC11.

Abstract:

From the perspective of food safety, chlorohydrins, as for example free 3-Mono¬chloro¬propane¬diol (3-MCPD), are known to be undesired contaminants that might occur in a broad variety of foods. They can be generated during certain processes as for instance acid treatment during production of soy sauce and hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP). Other sources might be the migration of chlorohydrins from contact materials into foods during production or storage. Since the occurrence of significant amounts of fatty acid ester bound 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and the structurally related glycidol in various edible oils was reported in 2006, 2009 and 2011. Several analytical methods for the determination of these compounds in oil matrices have been published and also validated. In 2014, the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) released a recommendation to all member states to monitor the presence of free and bound MCPD and glycidol in edible oils and fats and oil and fat containing foods as for instance infant formula, margarines, bakery ware and also certain fish and meat products. In this regard, there is an obvious need for analytical methods that cover these more complex matrices. This presentation intends to focus on the availability of analytical methods and their applicability and comparability in regard to the occurrence of free and bound MCPD and glycidol in different kinds of food.

Speaker
Biography:

Jessica Leigh obtained her PhD in Inorganic Chemistry from the University of Florida, USA in 2014. She has completed Post-doctoral fellowships in the College of Pharmacy at the University of Florida and the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition at the United States Food and Drug Administration. She is currently a Chemist at the US Food and Drug Administration where her research focuses on the development of analytical methods for the analysis of food products.

Abstract:

Fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol are process-induced chemical contaminants found in refined edible vegetable oils. Formed during the industrial processing of oils, 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters are considered potentially carcinogenic and/or genotoxic, making their presence in edible oils (and processed foods containing these oils) a potential health risk. Recently, increased attention has focused on the use of refined vegetable oils in commercial infant formulas. A novel approach for the detection 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters in infant formula will be discussed. Quantitation of the esters was performed using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method that was previously validated for the quantitation of these species in edible oils. Results of the validation indicate that recoveries ranging between 85 and 115% can be achieved for the most abundant 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters. This newly developed methodology was then applied to determine the concentrations of 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters in commercially available infant formulae from both the United States and Europe.

Speaker
Biography:

Nigel G Halford graduated from Liverpool University in 1983, obtained his Master’s degree from UCL in 1984 and his PhD from the CNAA at Rothamsted in 1989. In 1991, he moved to Long Ashton Research Station near Bristol but returned to Rothamsted in 2002. He is the author of >120 papers and several books. His research programme concerns the genetics of metabolic regulation in crops, how plant metabolism is affected by stress and how it can be manipulated for crop improvement. He is a visiting Professor at Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Special Professor at the University of Nottingham.

Abstract:

Acrylamide is a processing contaminant that was discovered in a range of popular foods in 2002. It forms from free asparagine and reducing sugars via similar pathways to browning colours, aromas and flavours, during high-temperature cooking and processing, and is classified as a Class 2a carcinogen. Cereal and potato products, along with coffee, are the major contributors to dietary acrylamide intake. Projects have been conducted on reducing the acrylamide-forming potential of wheat, rye, and potato, involving groups from Rothamsted Research, John Innes Centre, James Hutton Institute, the University of Reading, and consortia of organisations and companies from the respective supply chains. The studies have shown significant differences between varieties of all three crops with respect to acrylamide-forming potential. In cereals, free asparagine concentration is the limiting factor for acrylamide formation, and this is the parameter on which varietal selection should be based. In potato, the relationship between precursor conentration and acrylamide formation is more complex, but reducing sugars account for most of the variance in the majority of datasets. The genetic control of free asparagine accumulation in grains and tubers has been investigated. Environmental factors (E) also have significant effects, on their own and in combination with varietal differences (G×E), and crop management is important. For example, sulphur deficiency causes a massive accumulation of free asparagine in wheat grain. Plant breeders must engage on the acrylamide issue or risk losing market share to those who do, but the problem is made more difficult by the link between browning, flavour and acrylamide formation. It must also be remembered that cereals and potatoes are hugely important to global food security and significant health benefits are associated with eating wholegrain cereal products.

Speaker
Biography:

Jan Kuhlmann has completed his PhD in Chemistry at the University of Hamburg, Germany. He is the Leader of the Department of Chromatography at the SGS Multilab in Hamburg. SGS is a worldwide operating company for testing, inspection and certification. He has published 8 papers on analytical methods in reputed journals and is a member of several expert groups for contaminants in foods. He also is a Member of DIN and works as German delegate in the ISO subcommittee TC34/SC11.

Abstract:

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) and tropane alkaloids (TA) are potentially harmful plant metabolites that occur frequently in nature. Plants seem to produce these substances in order to defend themselves against damage by herbivorous animals or other invasive organisms. Thousands of plant species are known to produce PAs, of which several hundred different structures have been identified. They consist commonly of structurally non-diverse alkaloid bases that are esterified with a broad variety of one or two necine acids. From the perspective of food safety certain 1,2-unsaturated alkaloids, as for example retronecine and its derivatives, are of high relevance as several studies have indicated with evidence that they are assumed to cause genotoxic effects. Since years, PAs have been known to occur in honey but recently it seems also in other foods, food supplements and pharmaceuticals of plant origin can be contaminated. The reason therefore appears to be the accidental co-harvesting of PA and/or TA producing weeds together with the target crop. This makes a food-related estimation of potential contamination difficult as in most cases it is impossible to say what kind and amount of weeds might have been included. Risk assessment based on available analytical methods also seems to be difficult due to the limited number of PAs and TAs that are covered by recent methods. This presentation focuses on the identification of foods that might contain PAs and TAs as well as on the availability of analytical methods, their scope and comparability.

  • Track 4: Challenges to Food Hygiene and Safety
    Track 6: Microbiological and Chemical Aspects of Food Safety
    Track 9: Food Safety Regulations and Guidelines
    Track 3: Environmental Protection Co-management with Food Safety
Speaker
Biography:

Hsiao Ping Lee has completed her PhD from National TsingHua University. She is working as a Quality Assurance Manager in RMRI.

Abstract:

A new species, Chitinibacter tainanensis capable of converting chitin into N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG), was discovered in the previous work. It was found totally new that NAG could be produced by aerobic fermentation. Most of all, the broth of fermentation could be separated and further purified to the desired NAG powder with the purity of greater than 99%. The applications of NAG in the fields of food, cosmetics and pharmacy have been well defined. However, the safety of NAG produced by this novel bacterium should be thoroughly considered. In this work, a 90-day oral test in rat was conducted to justify the safety concern on NAG administration. A total of 40 male and female Wister rats were equally divided into 4 groups. Each group was given orally with NAG at dosage of 0 (D.I. water), 1.5, 3 or 5 g/kg bw/day separately. All animals survived to the end of study. The observations of overall health, food consumption, body weight, clinical pathology parameters (hematology, blood chemistry and urinalysis) and organ weights showed no significant differences among all groups. Microscopic examinations also showed that there were almost the same between control and treatment groups at the aspects of ophthalmic or histological observation. The results showed that the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of NAG for rat was 5 g/kg bw/day, equivalent to 100 times of the recommended dose for human (3 g/60 kg bw/day). NAG produced by the new species, C. tainanensis, is considered to be safely used as food supplement.

Speaker
Biography:

Kadim I T has completed his PhD in Meat Science from Massey University, New Zealand. He has more than 30 years of progressive experience as an academic, consultant and researcher. He has a professional history, as a faculty member at 3 institutes (Massey University; New Zealand; Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman; and Basrah University, Iraq). He has published more than 100 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of 3 journals.

Abstract:

Safety of meat and meat products is a multidimensional concept. There are reasons to believe, there is an information asymmetry between consumers, producers and safety authorities along the supply chain. Within this framework, this research aimed to detect some anabolic (estrogen, testosterone and trenbolone) residues in meat and meat products using ELISA and HPLC. Anabolic agents are widely used as growth promoters in livestock production. The administration of such chemicals to meat producing animals may lead to deposition of residual materials in meat and consequently presents a potential human health hazard. A total of 81 meat samples (beef, buffalo and sheep) representing fresh, frozen, minced, sausages, burger and mortadella were obtained. Estrogen was detected in all meat samples (100%); trenbolone was not detected in any sample (0%); and testosterone was detected in 24 red meat samples (30%) using ELISA and HPLC. There was a large variation in anabolic concentrations between meat and meat product samples suggesting that larger number of meat samples may be required for more accurate risk assessment. The level of estrogen and testosterone in considerable number of samples was over acceptable limits. The ELISA and HPLC tests were shown to be effective in measuring anabolic compounds in meat and meat products. The presence of anabolic agents in meat and meat products must be strictly monitored.

Speaker
Biography:

Diop Michel Bakar received his PhD in Agricultural Sciences and Biological Engineering from the University of Liège Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech in Belgium in 2008. He is currently a Lecturer and head of the food technology Department at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aquaculture and Food Technology (UFR S2ATA) in Gaston Berger University, Senegal. He coordinates several research and extension projects through the Center for Research on Food Biotechnology and Assistance for Competitiveness (PREBAAC) and participated as panelist in the Second Senior Expert on Science, Technology and Innovation of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, held in Nairobi (Kenya) on December 2015.

Abstract:

An application of bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria to improve preservative factors over fish fermentation based on the most frequently used technique in Senegal was undertaken. Traditional fish fermentation performed by immersion in salted sea water and incubation at 30o C for 24 to 48 hours to develop flavor is characterized by a pH value around 7. The process led to the growth of Enterobacteriaceae to reach 9 log CFU/g. Four bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria characterized in previous works were screened for decarboxylating activities. Only cultures of two Lactoccus lactis subsp. lactis (B-1410 and B-1426) producing nisin, a heat stable antibacterial peptide, did not produce histamine and tyrosine regarded as undesirable compounds on seafood products. The two lactococcal starter cultures grew well on a substrate based on millet, a local cereal. The AU/ml minimum inhibitory concentration of the antibacterial neutralized supernatant of the bacteriocinogenic starter cultures against Listeria monocytogenes was lower to those of many food poisoning or spoilage bacteria. Then, pieces of lean (Podamassys jubelini) and fat (Arius heudelottii) fish inoculated with 104-5 CFU/g of Listeria monocytogenes, were immersed in the millet flour based substrate seeded with 106-7 CFU/g pure cultures of the nisinogenic bacteria to evaluate the control of the fermentation at 30o C. Listeria monocytogenes contaminated fish samples immersed in the millet-based substrate without starter cultures addition were used as negative controls. The starter culture fermentation gave the lowest fish pH reading. The pH was dropped and maintained to a final level lower to the minimum value for the growth of many Enterobacteriaceae genera reported in spoiled fish. The growth of Listeria monocytogenes was significantly inhibited by starter cultures compared to that in the negative controls. These results indicate that cultures of the two nisin producers on the new formulated matrix can be used to improve fish fermentation in Senegal.