Day 2 :
Complutense University of Madrid, Spain
Time : 09:30-10:05
Jose S Torrecilla completed his BSc and PhD in Chemical Engineering at Complutense University of Madrid (UCM) and Post-doctoral studies at Queen’s University of Belfast, United Kingdom. Afterwards, he completed his BSc in Prevention of Labor Risks. Currently, he is an Associate Professor and Researcher at UCM. His research fields are mainly focused on “Developing mathematical models and designing chemo-metric tools in different fields (chemical engineering, food and health, etc.”. He has published over 70 papers in reputable journals and has been serving as a distinguished Editorial Board Member.
Nowadays, the determination of the quality of food is more than relevant and it is required not only by the consumers and the administration, but also by the producers themselves. This is why, its determination and monitoring should be done rapidly (to be applied at real-time during industrial processes), reliably, and also as inexpensive as possible. It is known that light emitting diodes (LEDs) are one of the most cost-effective energy sources employed for fluorescence studies and they are widely implemented in different fields related with food technology. In this research, LEDs have been used as light sources with different excitation wavelengths (400 nm, and different visible ones) to perfectly classify and determine the quality of honeys with different botanical origins (Eucalyptus, lemon, orange, rosemary and mixed-flower), rice syrup, extra virgin olive oils, and lower grade olive oils (refined and pomace).
- Special Session
University of Pisa, Italy
Time : 10:05-10:40
Alessandra Bertoli is a Researcher in Department of Pharmacy at University of Pisa. She completed her Master’s Degree at University of Parma; Post-doctoral studies in Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences at University of Calabria and; PhD in Medicinal Plants at University of Pisa. She is involved in national and international research projects and is an invited Lecturer. She is the Co-author of more than 100 publications.
In the last few years, the reduction or elimination of pathogens in food has increasingly oriented to substitution of synthetic food additives with different types of MAPs (Medicinal and Aromatic Plant) derivatives, which are added directly to foods or incorporated in the food packages. These new food formulations may answer simultaneously to the WHO recommendation to reduce the consumption of salt to decrease the incidence of cardio-vascular disease as well as to satisfy the worldwide demand of products with a reduced impact on the environment. Spices, essential oils, and plant extracts have been studied for their antibacterial and antioxidant properties since long time, but it is only recently that these data are used in the food production with safe and natural or green image. In fact, the addition of MAP derivatives in processed foods can extend their shelf life without the more toxic effects of chemical preservatives. Most of essential oils (EOs) in food industry have been recognized as generally safe by the American Food and Drug Administration and have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial action against different pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. In addition, due to their wide range of phytochemicals, MAps and derivatives are still debated on the possibility they can even result in beneficial health effects for the consumer. Most studies on the raw EOs generally show that they are slightly more active against gram positive than gram negative. This activity has to be related to EO quali-quantitative composition and the interactions among the different compounds. Further data have to be recorded to quantify microbial resistance or to explain the mechanism in the foodstuffs directly as bacterial sensitivity can also influenced by several factors due to both intrinsic food properties and extrinsic processing parameters. However, whatever MAPs derivatives have been used as additives, food production protocols should make their green image coherent with their effectiveness as food preservative by guarantying first of all MAP raw material quality.
- Oral Session 2
Scientific Institute of Public Health, Belgium
Title: A safety evaluation of printed paper and board contaminants: Photo-initiators as a case study
Time : 11:00-11:25
Kathy Van Den Houwe completed her Graduation in Chemistry and Bioprocess Technology as Bio-engineer at Free University of Brussels. In 2012, after research on the stability of migrants in food simulants at University of Ghent and the ILVO (Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research), she started working for the Scientific Institute of Public Health (WIV-ISP) in Brussels where she gained her expertise in Food Contact Materials.
Consumers are exposed to a range of substances that can damage their health. Until recently, food packaging as a source of contaminants has received little attention despite its ubiquitous use. Several food crises at the end of the previous decade highlighted the need for more information about compounds used in food contact materials (FCM). At present, there is no specific European legislation for the use of printing inks on FCM. However, the Council of Europe has established general recommendations for various non-harmonized materials containing inventory lists of starting substances, together with their toxicological evaluation - whenever this information is available. In practice, for thousands of substances used in FCM, no safety evaluation has been performed at the European level. Specific classes of substances are photo-initiators that are widely used in UV-cured inks. First, a Belgian market survey was conducted in order to investigate the presence of photo-initiators in dry food. 97 dry foods were analyzed as marketed. At least one photo-initiator was found in 85% of the food samples and the photo-initiators that were most frequently found were benzophenone, 2, 2-dimethoxy-2-phenyl acetophenone (DMPA) and ethyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate (EDMAB). Next, the potential genotoxicity of these substances was evaluated using a battery of in silico assays. Finally, a preliminary risk assessment was performed. For the evaluated substances, the concentrations in the food were below their Specific Migration Limit (SML). For the unlisted substances, the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) approach was applied. The estimated exposure of the unlisted substances, EDMAB, DMPA and 4-dimethylaminobenzophenone, exceeded the human exposure threshold determined by the TTC-concept. For these substances, a more in-depth risk assessment was performed based on the toxicological information collected from the database of the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). The current study illustrates how the TTC approach can be used to perform a preliminary risk assessment of substances migrating from FCM. However, the safety evaluation of these migrants remains challenging.
The Open University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Title: Authentication of Cordyceps sinesis and other Counterfeit species by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis
Time : 11:25-11:50
Eric Tung-Po Sze is an Assistant Professor since August 2013 at Open University of Hong Kong (OUHK), while maintaining as an Adjunct Faculty in Department of Chemistry, Chinese University of Hong Kong. He has his specialties and research interests in Analytical Chemistry, Laboratory Management, Chemical Metrology, Chinese Medicines, Environmental Science and Development of Novel Foods and Supplements, etc.
Cordyceps sinensis, also known as “Dong Chong Xia Chao”, has been deemed as the cornerstone of Chinese materia medica (CMM) for centuries. It is a composite CMM consisting of stromata of fungus parasitized on subterranean caterpillar or fruiting bodies of truffles. It is one of the most expensive and the rarest ingredients for use as food supplement due to its increasing demand but declining yield. People nowadays intend to falsify Cordyceps sinensis with some common counterfeit species with similar morphological features, such as Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps hawkesii and Metacordyceps taii, threatening the quality and safety of however as of today, not many techniques in the market authenticate Cordyceps sinensis. It is thus essential to develop a new and effective method to authenticate Cordyceps sinensis from those counterfeit species, especially when the ingredients in the food supplement have been grounded into powder or as an extracted form, where proteomics could be one of the alternatives. This is the first study to develop an optimized protocol for extracting proteins from Cordyceps sinensis; and to evaluate the proteins extracted from the counterfeits of Cordyceps using two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis. Results of this study indicate that extraction using lysis buffer only obtained the best yield of protein extracted from Cordyceps sinensis, and 2-D gel electrophoresis can be used for authentication of Cordyceps sinesis and its counterfeits species. Findings of this study can warrant further investigations on the identification of biomarker of Cordyceps species using analytical techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).
Figure 1 2-Dimension gel electrophoresis of Cordyceps sinensis (CS) and some common counterfeits species in the market, including Cordyceps militaris (CM), Cordyceps hawkesii (CH) and Metacordyceps
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Bangladesh
Title: Pulses cultivation as relay cropping in the rice field: A technique for intensification of pulses production in the medium high to medium low lands of Bangladesh
Time : 11:50-12:15
Md Omar Ali is a distinguished Scientist of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Bangladesh. He is a cropping system Agronomist. He has been working as a Principal Scientific Officer (Agronomy) at Pulses Research Centre (PRC) of BARI, Bangladesh since 1992. He has awarded his PhD degree in Agronomy especially in the field of Conservation Agriculture through the joint venture research program of ICARDA, Syria and Bangladesh. He is the program Leader of agronomic research and development activities of PRC of BARI, Bangladesh. He is also working with the collaboration of International Institute like-ICARDA, ICRISAT, AVRDC, IITA, ACIAR and World Bank etc. for the pulses research and development. He has developed 61 technologies. He has published four books/chapters and about 130 papers in the national and international journals. He has awarded Distinguished Scientific Achievement Award for the valuable contribution in lentil improvement in Bangladesh through ICARDA, 2004.
Pulses as a member of legumes is a wonderful gift of nature which is a store house of nutrition. Among the pulses lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus subsp. Culinaris), grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L) and pea (Pisum sativum L) are the important cool season legume crops grown in Bangladesh under rice-based cropping systems which have significant contribution to food, feed and sustainable development of agriculture. These pulses are mainly grown after the harvest of monsoon-rice in the winter season (October-March) in Bangladesh. But in most cases, these pulses cultivation, after the monsoon-rice harvesting is delayed in medium high - medium low lands and further aggravated by higher infestation of diseases and insect pests and forced maturity, resulting in lower yields. It was also identified that global climatic changes lead to more frequent high temperature during the end of crop cycle, resulting in lower yields. In this situation relay cropping, a conservation technology in the standing monsoon rice field, 10-15 days before rice harvest has a great opportunity which ensures timely sowing and best use of residual soil moisture and also reduces cost of production by 45%. It was found that, lentil, grass pea and pea as relay crop produced higher seed yield (2050 kg/ha), (1650 kg/ha) and (1850 kg/ha) which was higher by 46%, 32% and 37% over conventional practice (1400 kg/ha), (1250 kg/ha) and (1350 kg/ha), respectively. Now this technology is gaining popularity among the farmers of medium low land areas where the lands would have remained fallow otherwise. The increased production of pulses also has multi-dimensional impacts on livelihood improvement and nutritional security of Bangladeshi people. Besides this, inclusion of pulses in the rice-based cropping system ensures soil health improvement for sustainable production system. Finally, sustainable agriculture will be helpful for safety food production in the farm level as well as food will be secured.
Cukurova University, Turkey
Title: Determination of hygiene conditions and antimicrobial efficacy of disinfectant used in a catering company in Adana, Turkey
Time : 12:15-12:40
This study aimed to examine whether a company that provides a catering service used proper hygiene practices against food-borne microorganisms threatening public health and to investigate the efficiency of the detergent used in the company on some microorganisms isolated from the various places of the company. For this purpose, samples were taken from different surfaces and the staff of the company as well as the air various places of the company. Although Salmonella spp ve Listeria spp bacteria cannot found in the samples of the company but Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Micrococcus spp. were isolated. The antimicrobial activity of the detergent has been examined on these bacteria. In conclusion, it was observed that proper hygiene practices were inadequate against microorganisms in the investigated company, and the detergent used by the company did not have the same amount of antimicrobial influence on the bacteria isolated from the company.
Muhammad Afzaal is a Lecturer in Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Home Economics at Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan since 2013. His area of research and interest is Food Microbiology, Food Biotechnology, Food Safety and Marketing of value added products. He has executed many research projects as a team member and coordinator. He is currently supervising MPhil students. He has been the part of organizing many national and international conferences.
Foodborne diseases (FBD) comprehend a wide range of illnesses and are a growing public health problem and are considered as one of the important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Almost 30% of all deaths are in children under the age of 5 years from food borne diseases. According to World Health Organization (WHO), 351,000 people die of foodborne diseases globally every year. Salmonellosis, a Salmonella infection, caused by non-typhoid strains is the most common reported foodborne pathogen conquering more societal burden than any other FBD. Out of the significant pathogens including Shigella, Campylobacter, Listeria, Yersinia, Vibrio, and Cyclospora, the Salmonella is the utmost communal microbe causing maximum number of associated outbreaks. It also creates negative economic influences because of the high cost of investigation, treatment and prevention of food borne illness. Million cases of gastroenteritis are caused by Salmonella species across the globe each year, generally a self-limited disease, with the symptoms of fever (normally resolves within 48 to 72 h.) and diarrhea (3 to 7 days) occasionally with unembellished dehydration, shock, collapse and septicemia severely in young children, infants, elderly and immune-compromised. The most common mode of Salmonella transmission is through the ingestion of the bacterium in food (milk, water, poultry, uncooked eggs etc.) derived from an infected animal or contamination sources. The incidence of salmonellosis outbreak cannot be ignored due to the devastating effects to human. The situation in developing world is even more alarming because of poor public health and regulation enforcements. Intervention approaches are hence imperative to control Salmonella from farm to fork.
Omer Halisdemir University, Turkey
Time : 14:05-14:30
Fulden Karadal is a Lecturer and Researcher at Omer Halisdemir University, Turkey. She has done research on “Foods of animal origin and foodborne pathogens”. In previous works, she studied on antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype distribution of L. monocytogenes, prevalence of E. coli O157 H7 and Salmonella spp. in different foods (processed poultry products, meat and milk products) and AFM1 content of milk products.
Statement of the Problem: Coagulase-positive S. aureus strains are considered as the most pathogenic bacteria of all the staphylococci because of their ability to produce toxins. Foods of animal origin are the foods mostly incriminated for staphylococcal food poisonings which may be contaminated during slaughtering, processing or handling.
Aim: The aim of this study was to detect Staphylococcus aureus in some foods of animal origin and to determine staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), enterotoxin genes (sea to see) and the toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst) gene in the isolates.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: A total of 170 samples including soudjouk, salami, sausage, pastrami and raw chicken meat were randomly collected and examined. Positive samples were confirmed by PCR using the femA gene as an internal positive control for S. aureus. Multiplex PCR was used to detect se and tst genes and SEs were determined by ELISA.
Findings: Of the 66 (38.8%) isolates characterized as S. aureus, 27 (40.9%) were obtained from raw chicken meat, 17 (25.7%) from salami, nine (13.6%) from soudjouk, nine (13.6%) from pastrami and four (6.06%) from sausage. SEs were identified in 5 out of 66 (7.5%) isolates including three (4.5%) SEA, two (3.03%) SEC. However, the sea and sec genes were detected in 3 (4.5%) of 66 isolates. None of the isolates were positive for tst genes.
Conclusion & Significance: The results of this study indicate that the prevalence of S. aureus in foods of animal origin was high but low number of samples had a potential health risk with regard to staphylococcal enterotoxins. Carriers and origins of enterotoxigenic S. aureus contaminants should be followed up further studies to understand to and prevent sources of contamination.
- Special Session
University of Turin, Italy
Giancarlo Cravotto after 4-year experience in pharmaceutical industry became a researcher in the Department of Drug Science and Technology (University of Turin). He is currently Full Professor of Organic Chemistry and Department Director since 2007 as well as President of the European Sonochemistry Society (ESS) since 2012. His research activity is documented by more than 330 scientific peer-reviewed papers, more than 20 book chapters and 15 patents. His research activity has been centered on natural products extraction, purification and chemical modification. These studies have paved the road to new chemical procedures by means of non-conventional energy sources (ultrasound, hydrodynamic cavitation, microwaves, ball milling, flow reactors etc.). These studies prompted the development of innovative hybrid reactors and innovative green protocols applied in different fields: pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food processing and biomass valorization.
This report aims to highlight best practices in food safety and processing through the synergy of academia and industry in the development of green enabling technologies. In particular the use of cavitational reactors (ultrasound and hydrodynamic cavitation) and microwaves. These technologies combine food safety with process intensification. Typical processes under ultrasound are: emulsification, degassing, de-foaming, and extraction, while for dielectric heating: drying, cooking, defrosting. Of course scale up design, investment costs and environmental impact of new technologies requires multidisciplinary expertise. In the last three decades, several specific industrial applications of these technologies have been reported: flavour isolation, molecular encapsulation, enhanced hydrodistillation in lab and industrial scale, extraction in edible oils, fresh milk treatment and even in the degradation of allergens.
Jose S. Torrecilla
Complutense University of Madrid, Spain
University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago
Title: Prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. in chickens slaughtered at small retail processors (‘pluck shops’) in Trinidad and Tobago: Potential food safety risk to consumers
Time : 15:05-15:25
Anisa S Khan completed her Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) Honours degree at University of West Indies. She is currently pursuing Master of Philosophy in Veterinary Public Health. She has an interest in Veterinary Public Health, Food Safety and One Health. Her primary aim is to educate the population about the implications of zoonotic diseases thus bridging the existing gap between animal health and human health.
Statement of the Problem: Salmonellosis is an important foodborne disease worldwide, responsible for gastroenteritis and other ailments in animals and humans. Poultry is considered an important reservoir of Salmonella spp. Small retail processors called pluck shops are widely patronized as sources of dressed poultry across Trinidad and Tobago. To date, there is a dearth of up-to-date information on the prevalence of Salmonella spp. from poultry and the prevailing serotypes. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in dressed chickens (whole or parts) sold at selected pluck shops in counties across the country, to identify the risk factors for carcass contamination and to determine the Salmonella serotypes.
Methodology: In this cross-sectional study, 133 dressed whole chickens and 87 chicken parts were sampled across 44 outlets in 7 counties between April and December 2016. Isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. were performed using standard techniques.
Findings: The prevalence of Salmonella spp. was 20.5% (45/220). The frequency of isolation of Salmonella spp. was 22.4% (26/116), 23.0% (17/74), 7.1% (1/14) and 10.0% (1/10) for fresh whole, fresh chicken parts, chilled whole chicken and chilled chicken parts respectively. Salmonella spp. was recovered at a rate of 2.3% (5/220) and 9.5% (21/220) by the rinse and swab methods respectively. Among the isolates serotyped the predominant serotypes were Kentucky (30.0%), Javiana (15.0%) and Aberdeen (15.0%). Sanitation scores based on practices by handlers of chickens at outlets, conditions of bird cages, practices in defeathering, evisceration, packaging and sale, did not appear to affect the frequency of isolation of Salmonella spp. Data from the study indicate the extent of contamination by Salmonella spp. in the selected pluck shops studied and, of significance is the risk of salmonellosis posed to consumers of contaminated chickens sold at the pluck shops in the country.
Processing of broiler chickens at a “pluck shop” in Trinidad and Tobago
University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Czech Republic
Time : 15:25- 15:45
Eliska Pospisilova is pursuing her PhD at Veterinary and Pharmaceutical University, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology in Brno. Currently, she works at Veterinary Research Institute in Brno as a Researcher. She deals with the adulteration of food (especially of animal origin). She completed her Graduation in Food Safety and Quality at Veterinary University in Brno. She also studied at the Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague.
Food authenticity testing is one of the major challenges facing the food safety authorities. Pursuant to Council Regulation (EEC) No. 1536/1992, tunas are classified into true tunas (Thunnus thynnus, T. albacares, T. alalunga, T. obesus etc., Euthynnus sp. (Katsuwonus pelamis) or pseudo-tunas, i.e. bonito (Sarda sp., Euthynnus sp. (except Euthynnus pelamis) and Auxis sp.). With regard to this classification of tunas as true tunas and bonitos pursuant to the legislation, it could be beneficial to determine potential differences in their nutrient composition. A comparison between the chemical profiles of tuna and bonito species has not yet been scientifically described. Within the proposed experiment, a comparative chemical analysis of selected characteristics of the muscle tissue of tuna and bonito representatives will be carried out, and by this means chemical profiles of muscles of several representatives of the selected species of tuna (T. albacares) and bonito (Sarda sarda) will be created in order to compare their nutritional values. The chemical analysis will focus on the determination of basic chemical parameters (fats, n-3, n-6 FA, and proteins) using validated analytical techniques and advanced analytical instrumentation, with subsequent detection based on mass spectrometry and other standardized methods. The monitored parameters will be determined in both the raw muscle and muscle treated by the canning process in its own juice under pre-defined conditions, in order to determine the effect of high temperature and pressure on the given parameters.
University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago
Time : 15:45-16:05
Carol Hull-Jackson is pursuing her PhD in Veterinary Public Health and a part-time Lecturer at University of the West Indies. Her main areas of research include Zoonotic Diseases such as Leptospirosis, Food Safety and Food Microbiology.
Statement of the Problem: Barbados is the most easterly of the Caribbean islands and derives a large part of its economic stability from tourism. The Barbados Ministry of Health’s Public Health Department regularly conducts food safety training sessions with food handlers and inspects food businesses annually. However, it is also important that the microbiological quality of foods prepared for consumption can be assessed as an indicator of proper food safety and hygienic practices.
Methodology: Ready-to-eat (RTE) foods include those that are raw or cooked, hot or chilled that can be consumed without further heat-treatment including re-heating. RTE food safety guidelines indicate that these foods should be free of E. coli O157:H7, Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. E. coli contamination should not exceed 100 cfu/g and the Total Aerobic Plate Count (TAPC) should not exceed a range of 104–107 cfu/g, depending on the food type. Counts exceeding these limits indicate poor hygienic practices, failure of process or cross contamination. In two separate studies conducted between 2014 and 2016, samples of ready-to-eat foods were collected from food businesses located in popular tourist districts in Barbados. In the first study, 206 samples were processed for Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. and in the second study, 120 samples were processed for TAPC, coliform, E. coli counts and also screened for Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and E. coli O157:H7.
Findings: A low prevalence of Salmonella spp. [S. enteritidis, 1.5% (3/206) and 0.0% (0/120)] and Campylobacter spp., 3.4% (7/206) and 2.5% (3/120) and E. coli O157: H7, 0.0% (0/120) was found. Total aerobic plate counts were border line to unsatisfactory in 22.5% (27/120) of food sampled. The low prevalence of pathogens in RTE foods in Barbados may indicate that food preparation and hygienic practices are satisfactory.
University of Pretoria, South Africa
Title: Prevalence of brucellosis in slaughter animals in gauteng province abattoirs, South Africa: Food safety implications
Time : 16:05-16:25
Francis B Kolo completed his Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. He worked as a Veterinary Officer in Nigeria and was primarily responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of different animal diseases. He facilitated sensitization lectures sponsored by UNICEF to human healthcare practitioners in various local government councils in Niger State, Nigeria on Biosecurity. He completed his MSc in Veterinary Science at University of Pretoria in December 2015. His research was focused on “Dog population demographics, as it relates to herd immunity in the control of rabies in dog and human populations”. Currently, he is pursuing his PhD at University of Pretoria and research is focused on “Brucellosis in abattoirs and in abattoir workers”.
Brucellosis is one of the neglected zoonotic disease, a highly infectious and contagious zoonotic disease of humans, and a wide range of domestic animals. Globally, abattoirs are used for passive and active surveillance of diseases of both economic and public health significance.
This research goal was to determine the prevalence of Brucella spp. in slaughter livestock in abattoirs in Gauteng province, and the risk posed to consumers of Brucella-contaminated meat.
11 livestock abattoirs were included in the study from where 266 serum samples and 798 tissue samples comprising lymph nodes, spleen and liver were collected from 266 animals. An 11.5% and 5% sero prevalence were detected from RBT and iELISA respectively from cattle. 89% of iELISA positive samples were also tissue-positive for Brucella spp. by PCR. The PCR positive samples originated from 54.5% of the abattoirs were visited. It was concluded that meat from slaughtered Brucella spp. infected livestock pose a potential food safety risk to consumers.
Abattoir workers dressing carcasses at an abattoir in Gauteng Province, South Africa
- Poster Session
Gulf Medical University, UAE
Anoop Kumar Agarwal is an Associate Dean and Professor of Pharmacology at Gulf Medical University (UAE) with more than 25 years of experience in Teaching and Research. He has supervised several student studies in Pharmacology, Toxicology and Clinical Research apart from his expertise in Psychopharmacology. He has presented his work at several international conferences and has over 50 publications to his credit. He represents various university committees and has been a resource person in several workshops and seminars. He is currently associated with three different university projects.
Statement of the Problem: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic fungal metabolite produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species which contaminate coffee beans during processing, storage or transportation.
Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate if the ochratoxin A levels in the coffee beans can be associated with the geographical source, moisture and caffeine content or level of roasting.
Methodology: 16 samples (four mild roasted+four medium roasted+four dark roasted+four decaffeinated) each from three different countries (UAE, Brazil and Turkey) were analyzed for moisture (loss on drying method), caffeine (selective solvent extraction method) and OTA (ELISA technique) concentration.
Findings: The OTA levels ranged from 409 to 742 ng/100 g in coffee bean samples from different countries. Decaffeinated beans had minimum moisture (0.7%) and caffeine content (0.02%), whereas mild roasted beans had highest the moisture (2.83%) and caffeine content (1.3%). In UAE samples, the OTA concentration was significantly lower in decaffeinated samples and moderate roasted beans as compared to mild or dark roasted beans, but significantly higher in decaffeinated samples and dark roasted beans from Brazil and Turkey (p<0.01).
Conclusion & Significance: The OTA levels showed a positive relationship with moisture and a negative relationship with caffeine content with quantitative differences between samples from different countries. The fungal growth and OTA content can be evaded by monitoring factors such as temperature, humidity, storage condition, processing, harvesting, transportation etc. thus refining the quality of coffee beans. The OTA content present in the tested coffee beans was within the acceptable daily intake limits posing minimum health risk to the consumers.
National Institute of Hygiene-Rabat, Morocco
Horia Radid possess laboratory experiments in “Microbiology and genomic biology, medical, bacteriological and microbiological of food, water and food hygiene analysis”. She is working as a researcher at National Institute of Hygiene-Rabat, Morocco.
Among the most popular origins of diseases that have relation with feeding, we find, the perishable commodities and particularly the milk and its products especially during the very hot summer days. The matched methods for conservation of milk and the hygiene measures have never been respected. The objective of this study allows estimating the microbiological quality of raw cow’s milk of 120 taken samples, at sale, from four farms, four peddlers and four dairies during spring 2013. In all the samples that we analyzed, we looked for many micro-organisms, like the total aerobic mesophilic flora, the total coliforms and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus β-hemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Brucella abortus. The synthesis of the obtained global results during the microbiological tests of the cow’s raw milk which is collected from farms, peddlers and dairies, doesn’t show any specific fluctuations during all the way long of the trial period. Indeed, it doesn’t matter if the raw milk has been collected from a farm, peddler or a dairy; the microbiological quality test is always the same whether it is qualitatively or quantitatively. It is then necessary to create some effective control measures, in order to protect the health of the consumer. For the best milk quality, the dairy farmers must submit the most efficient hygienic methods.
Seoul National University, South Korea
Kun Taek Park completed his DVM and MS at College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, and PhD at College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University. After completion of his PhD, he served as Co-director of Flow-Cytometry and Monoclonal Antibody Center at Washington State University for five years. During this period, his research focused on “Development of new live vaccines for paratuberculosis and analysis of bovine immune system”. Since then, he has worked at Seoul National University as a Research Professor. His research interest includes Epidemiology of Foodborne Pathogens and Antimicrobial Resistance in Industrial Animals.
Statement of the Problem: Fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance is rapidly increasing worldwide and considered as a serious threat to the public health. FQ has been prohibited as a feed additive since 2009 in an effort to reduce antimicrobial resistance in food-producing animals in Korea. Consequently, FQ-resistant bacteria are expected to decrease in the animal industry in Korea.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The study was performed to investigate the prevalence of FQ resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in E. coli isolated from swine; and the antimicrobial resistance profile and FQ resistance mechanisms of FQ-resistant E. coli. E. coli were isolated from a total of 237 swine feces. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed against 16 different antimicrobial agents including FQ, and the three major FQ resistance mechanisms were investigated by sequencing of quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDR), detection of PMQR, and measuring of efflux pump activity.
Findings: Of 171 E. coli isolates, 59 (34.5%) isolates were determined as FQ-resistant. Of 59 FQ-resistant isolates, PMQR genes were detected in nine isolates (15.3%). Efflux pump activity was found in 56 isolates (94.9%), but this was not correlated with the increased FQ resistance. Point mutation in QRDR was detected in all 59 isolates (100%) and the main cause of FQ resistance. Of 59 FQ-resistant E. coli, 54 isolates (91.5%) were classified as multi-drug resistant E. coli.
Conclusion & Significance: Although the use of FQ as a feed additive has been prohibited in Korea, the prevalence of FQ resistance and PMQR genes has increased considerably in swine. The increased FQ resistance observed in this study may be, in part, due to the increased use of FQ for self-treatment and therapeutic purposes. Therefore, prudent use of FQ in animal farms is warranted to reduce the evolution of FQ-resistant bacteria in the animal industry.
University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago
Nitu Kumar completed her Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in Veterinary Medicine at College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Chhattisgarh-Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Raipur, India. She is currently pursuing her PhD in Veterinary Microbiology in Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad and Tobago. Her PhD thesis is entitled “Molecular analysis of Salmonella enterica strains carried by poultry entering the food chain in Trinidad”.
Statement of the Problem: Salmonella is one of the leading causes of foodborne illnesses worldwide impacting on public health in Trinidad. Salmonella infections are usually associated with the consumption of contaminated food products and infections in humans generally lead to acute gastroenteritis that may become complicated depending on the strain, serotype and host-specific factors. Changes in agricultural practices and antimicrobial misuse in food producing animals may be accelerating factors for the evolution of more virulent and multidrug-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to identify types of antimicrobial resistance and their associated genes, virulence-associated genes, and to analyze the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of Salmonella enterica serotypes isolated from poultry sale outlets in Trinidad.
Methodology: A total of 1503 caecal samples were collected from different ‘pluck shops’ in Trinidad and confirmed to be Salmonella using standard techniques. PCR-based assays were performed on 88 Salmonella isolates to detect 13 virulence-associated genes. Isolates were further assessed for their susceptibility to five antimicrobial agents using tube dilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Resistant isolates were subsequently examined for the presence of 11 resistance genes. PFGE was used, after DNA digestion by XbaI, to investigate the genetic relatedness among Salmonella enterica isolates recovered from poultry in Trinidad.
Findings: 11 (84.6%) of the 13 virulence genes investigated were detected and their frequency ranged from 1.3% (sefC) to 84.2% (mgtB). Only 4 (36.4%) of the 11 resistance genes tested for were detected and their frequency ranged from 1.3% (ampicillin) to 63.2% (quinolones). Of the five antimicrobial agents tested for MIC, the range was 7.5 µg/ml (gentamicin), 10-20 µg/ml (streptomycin), 1.25-10 µg/ml (ceftriaxone), 20-80 µg/ml (kanamycin) and 20-40 µg/ml (ampicillin). The PFGE patterns of Salmonella spp. of the same serotypes from chickens and ducks sampled from various outlets were distinctly different.
Pulsed Field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of Salmonella enterica isolates following digestion by restriction enzyme XbaI
Lanes 1: 5 10: Standard controls (Salmonella serotype Braenderup H9812 )
Lane 2: SD21 Salmonella Sub Species Enterica I from outlet S
Lane 3: A149 Salmonella Sub Species Enterica I from outlet A
Lane 4: A159 Salmonella Sub Species Enterica I from outlet A
Lane 6: R41 Salmonella Sub Species Enterica I from outlet R
Lane 7: SD22 Salmonella Typhimurium from outlet S
Lane 8: SD55 Salmonella Typhimurium from outlet S
Lane 9: A142 Salmonella Typhimurium from outlet A
Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, South Korea
Sheen Hee Kim is a Research Scholar at National Institute of Food & Drug Safety Evaluation, Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, South Korea.
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are toxins present in many plants belong to the families of Asteraceae, Boraginaceae and Fabaceae. PAs are secondary plant metabolites with carcinogenic and genotoxic properties. The toxins in comfrey include PAs and their N-oxides, which are generally the predominant natural form of PAs. The purpose of this study is to develop the LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of PAs in plant material. Mass spectral acquisition was done in the positive or negative ion mode applying multiple reactions monitoring for PAs. The results indicated that the solvent mixture of 0.05 M sulfuric acid in 50% methanol was the best compromise for extracting the analytes from food supplements. The estimated recovery rates at spiking levels 1 to 10 µg/kg ranged from 78.4 to 116.6% with relative standard deviations <25%. The applicability of this method will be used in the chromatographic determination test of PAs to analyze plant material and its products in Korea.
Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, South Korea
Sheen Hee Kim is a Research Scholar at National Institute of Food & Drug Safety Evaluation, Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, South Korea.
Ochratoxin A is a well-known nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin, produced by several fungal species of the genera such as Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. under various environmental conditions. The aim of this study is to optimize analytical method for determination of ochratoxin A in cereal-based foods. The chromatographic separation is performed by reversed phase HPLC with fluorescence detector. The method optimization is validated by extraction with solvent and clean-up on immune affinity column. The estimated recovery rates, at spiking levels 0.1 to 0.5 µg/kg, ranged from 94 to 114% with relative standard deviations <25%. This method show good sensitivity, accuracy and precision in cereal-based foods. The applicability of this method will be used in the chromatographic determination test of ochratoxin A to analyze cereal-based foods in Korea.
Gyeongin Regional Office of Food & Drug Safety, South Korea
Yongwoo Shin is a Scientific Officer in Gyeongin Regional Food and Drug Administration at Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, South Korea. He has proficiency and knows how to analyze hazardous chemicals in foods. He has contributed to Food Safety in Korea.
PEA (β-phenyl ethyl amine) is a naturally occurring monoamine with psychoactive effects. Orally ingested PEA is primarily metabolized in the small intestine by monoamine oxidase (MAO) before it even reaches the brain. PEA is substituted with alkyl group to become more resistant against MAO. The most widely known alkylated form of PEA is amphetamine (α-methyl PEA) which is pharmaceutically used in the treatment of ADHD, narcolepsy and obesity. PEA derivatives are illegal to be included in food and dietary supplements since abuse intake of the drugs via food without medical prescription can cause life-threatening side effects. Governmental agencies of food and drug safety invest their efforts to screen out food and dietary supplements illegally containing PEA derivatives. We developed an accurate, simple, rapid and simultaneous analysis method of seven PEA derivatives in food and dietary supplements using liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection (LC/PDA). The developed method was fully validated and showed good results with respect to specificity, linearity (r2>0.999), limit of detection (0.05 µg/mL), limit of quantification (0.20 µg/mL), precision (RSD<4.0%) and recovery (96-107%). It also satisfied all standards suggested by AOAC. To confirm the detected PEA derivatives, we also developed a qualitative analysis method by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). LC/PDA and LC/MS/MS methods described in this study were simple, rapid and reliable; the methods may be suitable for a rapid and sensitive analysis of synephrine, oxilofrine, PEA, BMPEA, fenfluramine, phentermine and lorcaserin in food and dietary supplements.
Gulf Medical University, UAE
Victor Raj Mohan Chandrasekaran is an Assistant Professor of Toxicology at Gulf Medical University, UAE. He has completed his Doctorate in Pharmacology and Toxicology at University of Madras in 2006. He completed his Post-doctorate at National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. His research interests include “Studying the heavy metal contamination in food and cosmetic products, drugs and chemicals induced hepatotoxicity”. He has published more than 20 original research articles in peer-reviewed journals and authored two book chapters. His research work has been presented at various international conferences and critically acclaimed. Currently, his research is focusing on “The migration of toxic substances includes phthalates, BPA from storage containers into the food material”.
Statement of the Problem: Honey, a natural product produced by honeybees, is a sweet quick energy source frequently used by humans. Heavy metals and caffeine contamination, depending upon the environmental factors (soil, air, water, temperature, vegetation etc.) and use, may lead to several symptoms such as anxiety, aggression, convulsions, insomnia etc., when present above permissible limits. Thus, their concentrations should be monitored for public health safety.
Aim: The study was undertaken with the objective of analyzing heavy metals and caffeine levels in different brands of honey available in UAE market.
Methodology: Three brands of honey from 10 different countries (n=30) were analyzed in duplicates for heavy metals (iron, zinc, lead and cadmium) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and caffeine by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.
Findings: All four heavy metals were present in all the samples in varying concentrations. The highest levels of iron, cadmium, lead and zinc were found in samples from Sudan (1.9 µg/ml), Yemen (0.08 µg/ml), Bulgaria (0.54 µg/ml) and UAE (0.44 µg/ml), respectively. However, all levels were below the permissible limits. Caffeine was highest in samples from Afghanistan (62.0 µg/ml) and Lebanon (52.8 µg/ml), whereas most of other samples contained caffeine between 0-20 µg/ml.
Conclusion & Significance: It was concluded that the heavy metals and caffeine levels in honey samples available in UAE were below the permissible levels and did not pose any health risk to the consumers.