Day 2 :
- Food Quality
Korea University,Republic of Korea
Islamic Azad University, Iran
Vahideh Jalali is an undergraduate student in Food Science and Technology in Isfahan Azad University, Khorasgan, Iran. She has worked in different food companies for about 12 years.
Statement of the Problem: Thermal food processing is an important preservation technique to manufacture shelf stable foods. The objective of this study was to optimize the thermal processing of Vegetarian Khoreshteh Bademjan (VKB) in order to maintain nutritional quality and saving the processing energy requirements. Up to now no studies have been published on the canning of (VKB) as an Iranian food. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to predict the temperature distribution and flow behavior of the product during the process. The effectiveness of the thermal processing was estimated by the F values at the slowest heating zone (SHZ) in the can. The CFD model predicts the position of SHZ in the process at various time stages (Bacillus coagulans was considered as the target microorganism).
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Steam (394 k) was used to heat the canned VKB. ANSYS FLUENT 16.0, which is a commercial computational dynamic fluid solver, was used to solve the NAVIER-STOKES equations. First step was designing the geometry of the cylindrical container (with and without head space). The geometry was symmetric, hence only a segment of the can needed to be modeled. Meshing the geometry was done and the finer rectangular mesh was applied in the boundary layers. The thermophysical properties of the product were measured as functions of temperature (density, thermal conductivity, specific heat and viscosity). Boundary conditions were based on uniform heating on all sides of the container. Simulation was done using the pressure-based solver and PISO algorithm. To validate the numerical results, an experimental result was also conducted at the same condition. Finally T student test was used.
Findings: The SHZ was found at the geometric center of the can in the without head space model and at an area between the center and top of the container in the model with considering head space (real model). The validation results (of time-temperature contribution and F value) showed a good similarity between the predicted and experimentally determined values in the real model. Then to optimize the process, the time-temperature was adjusted to a lower F value by using Simpson’s rule.
Conclusion & Significance: CFD simulation, by analyzing the temperature profiles inside the can during the process showed that using the optimization led to reducing the quality losses and energy consumption while keeping the product safe.
University of Holy Spirit- Kaslik, Lebanon
Jack C Khalil has his expertise in laboratory work and he is currently a researcher at the Holy Spirit University of Kaslik (USEK), Lebanon. His area of interest is food and environmental microbiology. His experience as research assistant made him more passionate about research.
Escherichia coli, despite being a commensal organism that lives normally within the microflora of humans and animals, can be sometimes pathogenic causing serious illness and this is becoming a global clinical concern in both human and veterinary medicine. This study was conducted to ultimately determine the prevalence and susceptibility patterns against antibiotics of different E. coli serotypes isolated from raw chicken in Lebanese retail market and to limit or reverse resistance arising from the irrational use of antibiotics. Raw chicken meat samples (200) obtained from broilers of retailers and grocery shops in Lebanon were examined for the presence of E. coli in accordance to ISO 16649-2. These isolates were then screened for their antibiotics susceptibility patterns against 14 antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, neomycin, streptomycin, doxycycline, tetracycline, fosfomycin, gentamicin, cephalexin, tylosin, tilmicosin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin). The antimicrobial activity of the antibiotics was in vitro tested against detected microorganism isolates by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Our findings revealed a statistically significant prevalence of identified E. coli (40%) in the tested samples indicating a high public exposure risk. Results of antibiograms revealed that E. coli isolates were resistant to at least three or more of the antibiotics tested and presented high resistance to penicillin (100%), ampicillin (100%), amoxicillin (100%), erythromycin (100%), tetracycline (100%) and streptomycin (100%) with either a very small inhibition zone or no presence of an inhibition zone at all. Further investigation on the sanitation and hygiene systems applied on the food flow of Lebanese poultry is necessary.
University of Holy Spirit-Kaslik, Lebanon
My name is Chantal Abou Jaoudeh, I am a PhD student in food sciences and technology at the Holy spirit university-Kaslik, Lebanon, this is my third year. I’ve got my Bachelor in Biology (Human physiology option) in 2004 at the Lebanese university, and in 2006 I’ve got my Master in Quality control and management (application to the food safety) from agroparitech university. Currently, I work as an engineer of conformity mark and auditor at LIBNOR, since March 2017.
The prophylactic use of antibiotics as growth promoters in diets for broilers has generated an intensive poultry production and improved feed conversion in the animals. However, resistant bacteria in chicken survive and grow at low doses of antibiotics and may cause an antibiotic-resistant generation. Therefore, researchers are investigating natural alternatives to antibiotics to improve poultry production, such as Origanum’s essential oil. To assess the potential effect of native plant species as alternatives, we extracted the essential oils of Origanum syriacum L. and O. ehrenbergii Boiss. by hydrodistillation using Clevenger apparatus and the chemical composition of both species was determined by GC-MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity of serial dilutions of the oils and thirteen (13) antibiotics was in vitro tested against detected microorganisms isolates (E. coli) by growth inhibition and determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). The yields of essential oils reached 8.5% for O. syriacum and 2.4% for O. ehrenbergii. The major compounds identified in both plants were Carvacrol and Thymol. Both essential oils tested showed a very promising potential in inhibiting the growth of tested bacteria comparing to the antibiotics used. These results clearly demonstrate the high and economic potential of using these plants as natural and safe additives to promote food safety and limit the resistance arising from the misuse of antibiotics. Further investigation on the sanitation and hygiene systems applied on the food flow of Lebanese poultry is necessary.