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8th International Conference on Food Safety and Regulatory Measures , will be organized around the theme “Healthier the Food, Merrier the World”
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Food safety indicates to those hazards that have physical, chemical and microbiological effects it makes food injurious to the health. It also describes handling, preparation and storage of food in order to prevent foodborne illness. Food safety often overlaps with food defense to prevent harm to consumers. Food can transmit disease from person to person as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. So food safety is a significant public health issue. Every year death of approximately 2 million people occurs due to unsafe food. More than 200 diseases occur because of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites or chemical substances in food.
An effective food legislation and food control is required for every nation to promote a safety food supply to protect consumers from contaminated foods. Food law is divided in two parts; Food Act and Food Regulations. Food act sets broad principle and Food regulation contain detailed provisions. Incorporation in the law of detailed specifications about food standards, food processing, hygienic practices, packaging and labeling may make for difficulties. A revision of regulations is necessary because of new scientific knowledge, changes in food processing technology to protect public health. So food law is based on scientific studies. From the late twentieth century harmonization of Food Law on the international level is a worldwide trend. In order to promote a safe, honesty food supply and to prohibit the sale of foods that are unsafe, contaminated, and adulterated every nation needs an effective food legislation and food control service. Food is governed by a complexity of laws and regulations which set out the government’s requirements to be met by people to ensure the food is safe and of adequate quality. Generally food law can be divided in to two parts: a basic food act, regulations. These laws and regulations implement on practices that are related to food labeling, food hygiene, food additives and pesticide residues, as well as policies on biotechnology and food guidelines for the management of governmental import and export inspection certification systems for foods. The proper implementing of such law encourages fair trade practices through compliance with the basic provisions of food law.
Food safety hazard refers to any agent with the potential to cause adverse health consequences for consumers. Food safety hazards occur when food is exposed to hazardous agents which result in contamination of that food. Food hazards may be biological, chemical, physical, allergenic, nutritional and/or biotechnology-related. Hazards may be introduced into the food supply any time during harvesting, formulation and processing, packaging and labelling, transportation, storage, preparation, and serving. Hazard characterization with respect to foods began as a means to help prioritize risks and categorize hazards. Characterization of hazards is more important than ever in developing food safety control programs. Hazard analysis and critical control points or HACCP is a systematic preventive approach to food safety from biological, chemical, and physical hazards in production processes that can cause the finished product to be unsafe, and designs measurements to reduce these risks to a safe level.
The safety of food has been advanced substantially by the introduction and implementation of the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Point (HACCP) concept. HACCP provides a systematic conceptual framework for identifying food hazards and focusing efforts on the proper functioning of key food production, food processing and marketing steps. The complexity of the pre-harvest, harvest, and post-harvest environments make it impossible to control all potential sources of food contamination. Efforts at prevention and control are implemented throughout the food production and food processing system. Researchers are continually searching for a better understanding of the pathogens and their interaction with the environment, leading to improved control technologies. But at the same time, the pathogens continue to evolve, and human actions sometimes drive that evolution. Even small environmental changes can have unforeseen or even unforeseeable impact on microbial populations. Improved understanding of these complex factors provides insight into pathogen evolution and opens the door to new and improved prevention and control methods.
The surveillance systems have a dual purpose. First is to detect, control and prevent foodborne disease outbreaks. Most of the countries have such surveillance and response systems in place, but the effectiveness and coverage of those systems vary from country to country. Many people outline such foodborne disease outbreak investigations, including their detection and control through food safety mechanisms and discuss the food safety response including the importance of developing emergency response plans for food safety. The second is to inform long-term issues, like identifying priorities and developing policy for the control and prevention of foodborne diseases; estimating the burden of foodborne diseases and monitoring trends; and evaluating foodborne disease prevention and control strategies. However, only a few countries have surveillance systems in place that can meet these objectives, severely impacting the efficiency of their food control systems.
Advances in Food quality and processing encompass, product design and process control, application of good food hygienic practices, throughout production, processing, food labeling, food handling, food distribution, storage, preparation ,use The above in synchrony with HACCP system, application include to the complete food chain, Production on the farm through to the consumer. Food processors must have systems in place to assure that products which are being manufactured do not have physical, chemical or microbial contaminants introduced during processing and packaging. Some sources of potential contamination include animal waste fertilizers, contaminated irrigation water, human handling practices, contaminated containers, inadequate postharvest washing, improper packaging, poor temperature management and contamination in the food preparation area. If food safety systems are not in place during processing, thousands of consumers are at risk. A single incident of personal injury traced back to a specific food processor may put that company out business and result in criminal prosecution of the owners and management. Systems which assure the safety and wholesomeness during food processing fall into three categories like Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP's), Sanitation Procedures and Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP). Food safety begins during production, so the production and postharvest handling of raw ingredients should be carefully monitored.
Food preservation on the other hand fundamentally aiming at minimizing post-harvest losses of food while improving the shelf-life and value supplement. As food safety concerns started to surface with food borne illnesses, food safety management systems slowly progressed and developed to today's sophisticated levels. Food quality standards have benchmarked the required level of food quality criterion, linking the safety management systems to the desired quality. Food quality is an important food manufacturing requirement, because food consumers are susceptible to any kind of contamination that may occur during manufacturing process. It is important to ensure that the food processing environment is clean in order to produce the safest possible food for the consumer. The important components of food quality are: food safety, sensory characteristics and nutritional value. Nutritive value is one of the important characteristics, which is now considered by the consumers as a quality attribute. Safety of food is a basic requirement of food quality. Considering the importance of quality standards and food management system in maintaining food safety and security abstracts are invited from the research outputs from these areas.
Every food business is required to follow the legal requirements for food safety. The general principles of food safety require every business operator along the food chain to ensure that the safety of food is maintained. Grocery store activities can cover a wide range, including food processing and food serving, so operators need to follow a wide set of safety procedures. Grocery stores that produce fresh and cooked foods in store are required to follow the same food safety procedures as restaurants and other food serving businesses. Retail stores can apply the same safety principles based on HACCP as the food processing industry, but adapted for the much more varied conditions and production. HACCP principles are applied to protect food from biological, physical and chemical food safety hazards by applying controls that prevent direct contamination and cross contamination. Hazards can be introduced anywhere in the supply chain from production on farm to transport and during storage and processing in the retail store. Raw animal products such as meat, eggs, fish and shellfish, and especially poultry, can carry microorganisms that are harmful to the consumer. In store, staff surfaces and equipment can introduce hazards to the food.
Foodborne illness can affect anyone who eats contaminated food; however, certain populations are more susceptible to becoming ill with a greater severity of illness. These populations include infants and children, the elderly, pregnant women, people taking certain kinds of medications or immune suppressed. Symptoms of foodborne illness include upset stomach, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and dehydration; they can range from mild to severe and death. To prevent foodborne illness, it is necessary to understand how food becomes unsafe to eat and what proactive measures can be taken to keep food safe. Pathogens can cause different types of foodborne illness. Once a contaminated food is eaten, illness can be caused by the pathogens themselves, caused by toxins produced in the food by pathogens and caused by toxins produced in the body by pathogens.
A food allergy is an abnormal reaction of the body's immune system to a particular food. This tends to cause unpleasant and unwanted effects (symptoms). There are different types of food allergy, depending on which part of the immune system responds. The acute, sudden-onset reactions tend to be caused by antibodies called immunoglobulin E (IgE). Those parts of the food causing allergic reactions are usually proteins and are called allergens. Most of these allergens can still cause reactions even after they are cooked or have undergone digestion in the intestines. Exceptions are fruits & vegetables, which seem to be more allergenic when fresh. Numerous food proteins have been studied to establish allergen content. Food intolerance reactions are usually related to the amount of the food consumed. They may not occur until a certain amount (threshold level) of the food is eaten, but this amount varies for each person. Food intolerance is a chemical reaction that some people have after eating or drinking some foods; it is not an immune response. Food intolerance has been associated with asthma, chronic fatigue syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
Food contamination refers to the presence in food of harmful chemicals and microorganisms which can cause consumer illness. This article addresses the chemical contamination of foods, as opposed to microbiological contamination, which can be found under foodborne illness. The impact of chemical contaminants on consumer health and well-being is often apparent only after many years of processing. Prolonged exposure at low levels. Chemical contaminants present in foods are often unaffected by thermal processing. Processing contaminants are generated during the processing of foods (e.g., heating, fermentation). They are absent in the raw materials, and are formed by chemical reactions between natural and/or added food constituents during processing. The presence of these contaminants in processed foods cannot be entirely avoided. Technological processes can be adjusted and/or optimized, however, in order to reduce the levels of formation of processing contaminants. Chemical contaminants can be classified according to the source of contamination and the mechanism by which they enter the food product. While many food contaminants have been known for decades, the formation and presence of certain chemicals in foods has been discovered relatively recently. These are the so-called emerging food contaminants like acrylamide, furan, benzene, perchlorate, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), 3-monochloropropane-1,3-diol (3-MCPD), 4-hydroxynonenal, and (4-HNE).
Microbiological hazards are one of the most indicative, causes of food poisoning. An understanding of these hazards is vitally to understanding how suitable controls may be applied Food safety/quality testing is required to obtain a certificate of testing for ready to eat and raw products at certain stages of processing Food testing technologies such as Polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) testing determines major pathogens like E.coli0157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Campylobacter by identify the presence of the organism's DNA ELFA Enzyme-Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA) exhibit pathogens by detecting their protein. Chemistry for Food Safety (FSMA) Such as Toxic Metals, Antibiotics, Mycotoxins, Melamine; Chemistry for Food distinction, such as pH, Total Solids, Water Activity, Nutrients Ingredients. Modern food safety has its roots in Chemical Aspects discipline. Initially these methods were applied to extend the food testing and over time an understanding appearance that many of these methods had the effect of making food safer for human consumption. Today these methods are used extensively in the global food sector as part of HACCP plans to consistently produce food for a mass consumption with high quality and safety.
Foodomics is defined as a discipline that studies the Food and Nutrition domains through the application and integration of advanced -omics technologies to improve consumer's well-being, health, and knowledge. Starting from the four major types of omics measurements (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), a variety of omics sub disciplines (epigenomics, lipidomics, interactomics, metallomics, diseasomics, etc.) has emerged. We can connect the food components, foods, the diet, the individual, the health, and the diseases, due to omics approach, but it is not only the application of advanced technologies, but mainly the ability of looking at the problem with a different approach, a "foodomics approach". Foodomics is the comprehensive, high-throughput approach for the exploitation of food science in the light of an improvement of human nutrition. Foodomics is a new approach to food and nutrition that studies the food domain as a whole with the nutrition domain to reach the main objective, the optimization of human health and well-being.