Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 5th International Conference on Global Food Safety San Antonio, USA.

Day 2 :

OMICS International  Global Food Safety 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Martin Appelt photo
Biography:

Martin Appelt is the Director of the Meat Hygiene division in the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. He is a Veterinarian with expertise in Food Animal Clinical Practice, Regulatory Animal Health and Food Production. He is a graduate from the Vienna Veterinary University, Austria; he obtained a PhD in Animal Husbandry and Welfare, specializing in Food Animal Transport at Sea

Abstract:

An impressive gathering of public health officials and veterinarians in Germany at the end of the 19th century, a time where illness and death from meat borne disease was common and led to the introduction of formal slaughter and meat inspection as we know it today. 120 years later, veterinary authorities in many countries struggle with a resource-intensive meat inspection system that has, in many cases, not changed at its core since its inception. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency is working on future-oriented ways to oversee meat production in a manner that is sustainable and will achieve the same or better food safety outcomes than traditional carcass-by-carcass inspection. Key steps of the process are the identification of activities that are food safety critical, as opposed to food suitability or food quality, matching the risk of food safety defects to appropriate oversight activities and developing an inspection model that is applicable to all food animal species. Historical roots must be remembered- meat inspection initially had public health goals, but the major driver was international trade in
meat. Consequently, changes to one country’s meat inspection procedures that can have significant impact on the domestic industry’s ability to export meat product. The fear of economic re-percussions can paralyze modernization efforts and any successful path forward for meat inspection must provide workable solutions for this concern. The CFIA is working in close contact with like-minded international regulators and embracing internationally accepted standards to bring about change in a manner that maintains public trust into the meat inspection system and avoids disruptions in trade of meat products.

OMICS International  Global Food Safety 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Amegovu Kiri Andrew photo
Biography:

Amegovu Kiri Andrew has completed his PhD in Nutrition at Kenyatta University Nairobi, Kenya. He is pursuing his Post-doctorate at Atlantic International University, USA. He is the Director at Andre Food Consult, a consultancy firm in Uganda which conducts research, training and implement nutrition programs for UNWFP/ UNICEF and UNHCR. He has published eight papers in reputable journals and six manuscripts are near completion. He is a Reviewer of three international journals, Assistant Professor at Juba University in South Sudan and Head of Department of Food Science & Technology.

Abstract:

WHO recommends the use of Weight-for-Height (WHZ) and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) for the assessment of nutritional status of children. However, results from these two anthropometric measures often differ; only a proportion, 40% of malnourished children identified by one of the indicators is also identified by the other. There is also a discrepancy in the prediction of recovery, thus the follow-up time between the two indicators. This study therefore investigated the variation in time and error margin in the use of MUAC and WHZ for the admission, follow up and discharge of moderately malnourished (MAM) preschool children on supplementary feeding program. This was study and was conducted
from September 2015 to November 2015 in Moroto district in Uganda. A total of 181 MAM preschool children were recruited
and followed up. MAM cases were screened in the villages using MUAC (11.5 to 12.5 cm) by VHTs (village health teams) who referred them to 14 different SFP sites and rescreened by trained nutritionist. Participants were provided with super cereal plus ration on a biweekly basis. They were followed up weekly using MUAC and WHZ until discharge for maximum of 90days. During follow-up, both MUAC and W/H measurements were both used. On admission, all the 181 participant qualified as MAM cases with MUAC >11.5cm and <12.5cm as per WHO guideline. However, on using WLZ/WHZ in z-score, 56.4% did not qualify as MAM cases as their WHZ-score is >-2SD. Only 33.7% qualified as MAM and 9.9% as Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) implying high sensitivity but low specificity of MUAC in identifying MAM cases during screening. The error margin or difference of 56.4% between MUAC and WHZ measure for admission could be a result of confounding by other factors such as age, sex, ethnicity and stunting which this study did not investigate. Kaplan Meir Survival analysis was carried to ascertain differences in recovery time. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in time taken on using MUAC and WHZ-score for the follow up of MAM cases admitted into SFP until discharge. Based on MUAC criteria, 59% (71/120) of the followed up participants, reached the recovery cutoff point while based on W/H criterion, only 41% (9/120) reached the recovery discharge cutoff. This equally shows MUAC as a good measure for discharge as it is for admission. There was a similarity between the average length of stay (LOS), 43 days from admission to recovery using either MUAC or WHZ. The use of MUAC as a standalone anthropometric measure could be recommended for admission, follow up and discharge into nutritional rehabilitation program for MAM.

Break: Refreshment Break 11:05-11:25 @ Foyer
  • Special Session/Workshop
Location: Texas C

Session Introduction

M.G.S.A. Wimalasena

Central Food Laboratory, Sri Lanka

Title: Food safety activities in Sri Lanka
Speaker
Biography:

M.G.S.A.Wimalasena is a Senior Assistant Government Analyst in the Government Analyst’s department. She holds an experience of more than 23 years in the field of Food and Alcoholic Beverages. Her main duties involve: The supervision and conducting analysis and reporting of the quality of various food and liquor items submitted by the Government Food Authority under the Food Act, Consumer protection Act and Excise ordinance of Sri Lanka. She is responsible for developing, maintaining and monitoring of the Laboratory Quality Management System as a Quality Manager. She actively participates in Drafting Committees of Sri Lanka Standards Institution for formulating new Sri Lanka standards. She also provides analytical and advisory services to the Health department and other law enforcement authorities.

Abstract:

Food safety is one of the key concerns in the developing and the developed countries. Sri Lanka has a very good food control system in place. It is implemented from grass root level. There is an organized food inspection system and a laboratory service. They are established under the Food Act of Sri Lanka. The Food Act controls all the stages of food chain. The Food Act implemented in Sri Lanka is the Food Act. No 26 of 1980. The Act lays down only the basic principles. It has sections on labeling and advertisements, registration, appointment of authorized officers and their powers, provision to make regulations, etc. Under the Act, Director General of Health Services is the Chief Food Authority and also the Chairman of the Food Advisory Committee (FAC). The FAC is comprised of 19 members. They represent various stake-holders in food safety from Government departments / Ministries as well as trade and consumers. There is also a Food Advisory Technical Sub-committee that deliberates on issues referred to it on a regular basis. The main function of the FAC is to advise the Minister in charge of the subject of health on food safety policy matters. The Food Control Administration Unit is in charge of the general administration of regulatory and training activities of the country. There are six authorized laboratories for chemical analysis and one microbiological laboratory in the country. The consumer affairs authority Act No 9 of 2003 was established with focusing attention on the consumers in the present day context of the new economic order and trade procedures. It safeguards the rights of not only the consumers but also the traders who are subjected to injustice. Both the goods and services are covered within the ambit of the Act. The Sri Lanka Standards Institution (SLSI) was established and empowered with the primary responsibility of promoting standardization and quality management practices in Sri Lanka, and responsible for implementation
of internationally recognized Management Systems Certification Schemes of ISO 22000, Food safety Management System, HACCP Food Safety certification Scheme, Good Manufacturing Practice Scheme, Super Market Certification Scheme, etc.

Break: Lunch Break 12:25-13:25 @ Texas C
  • Oral Session: 2 |Foodborne Illness & Allergies | Cereal Chemistry & Technology| HACCP Utilization & Food Safety Systems | Poultry & Meat Processing Technology | Food Preservation & Storage | Food Packaging Technology | Dairy Technology
Location: Texas C
Speaker

Chair

Martin Appelt

Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Canada

Speaker

Co-Chair

Amegovu Kiri Andrew

Juba University, South Sudan

Session Introduction

Iliyan Staykov

Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Canada

Title: Food safety recognition program
Speaker
Biography:

Iliyan Staykov is an Agri-food Specialist at the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) in Ottawa. His work has centered on the development and implementation of National On-Farm Food Safety Recognition Program. He has been collaborating with representatives from 22 industry organizations to raise awareness and foster understanding of the CFIA food safety requirements. He has over 20 years of academic and industry experience in research and development. Prior to joining the Canadian Federal Government, he was a Lead Food Scientist at Natural Newfoundland Nutraceuticals. He has led projects related to obtaining various bio-active ingredients and their
application in food and beverage manufacturing. He holds a Master of Food Science and Technology from University of Food Technologies, Bulgaria

Abstract:

The food safety recognition program (FSRP) is led by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) with the participation of the provincial/territorial governments and industry. It is a voluntary program established in 2001 and proven to be successful since its inception. The purpose of the FSRP is to provide a framework for government oversight of on-farm and post-farm food
safety programs developed and implemented by National Industry Organizations using Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
(HACCP) principles. Currently, there are twenty national organizations that have completed or are at various stages in the FSRP process. Two national organizations, chicken farmers of Canada and dairy farmers of Canada representing approximately 2, 700 and 12, 000 producers, respectively completed the final stages of the recognition process. Three more national organizations, egg farmers of Canada, CanadaGap/CanAgPlus and Turkey farmers of Canada are in the final stage of completing the recognition process. Once granted a letter of recognition, the recognized industry food safety program is required to participate in ongoing monitoring that takes place every 20 months. The maintenance of recognition status is a thorough evaluation process ensuring that the industry’s recognized food safety program remains technically sound and is implemented, administered and managed in a manner that fosters continual improvement of safe food practices. The FSRP platform is one of consultation, collaboration and equal voice between federal, provincial, territorial governments and industry. It increases consumers and trading partners trust and confidence in the Canadian food safety system

Speaker
Biography:

Alfee B Capule is a recipient of the DOST-HRDP Graduate Scholarship program, completed her Master’s degree in Food Science at University of Santo Tomas and BS in Food Technology at University of Philippines-Diliman. Her first professional experience as a Food Technologist was at Philippine Nutri-Foods Corporation, later at National Meat Inspection Commission and at University of the Philippines Pilot Food Plant. Currently, she is the Science Research Specialist II at Food and Nutrition Research Institute. Her accomplishments include: 2015 FNRI Scholastic Achievement Award and FNRI Innovator’s Award for Utility Mode Registration. She has been a resource speaker on “Sensory evaluation, food packaging, shelf life determination in food and several technology forums” in different regions. She has also written and published four original research articles in international peer-reviewed scientific journals.

Abstract:

Adlay (Coix lacryma jobi L.) is an underutilized cereal crop that shows potential as a source of starch. In the form of starch, its utilization can be enhanced by modification. However, there are limited studies on the modification of adlay starch and its properties. The study aimed to characterize adlay starches modified by heat-moisture treatment in terms of nutrient composition, physical and functional properties. Nutrient composition, physical and functional properties were analyzed using standard methods
and compared with modified cornstarch and modified tapioca starch. Modification caused a decrease in moisture and increase in protein, ash and resistant starch content. Modified starch produced is white with lightness (L) values ranging from 95.70-93.98. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that the shape and surface characteristics of the starches were oval to polygonal with various cracks, fissures and indentations on the surface. Water absorption capacity increased while swelling and solubility decreased. Significant changes in pasting and gelatinization properties were also observed. Pasting curves were similar to the control. In conclusion, modified starches that were produced from adlay through heat-moisture treatment showed properties that may have potential application in canned food products, sauces, noodles and bread.

Speaker
Biography:

M.G.S.A.Wimalasena is a senior Assistant Government Analyst in the Government Analyst’s Department. The Government Analyst’s Department is the central food laboratory and the only forensic laboratory in Sri Lanka. She is having more than 23 years’ experience in the field of Food and Alcoholic Beverages. Her main duties involve the supervision and conduction of analysis and reporting of the quality of various food and liquor items submitted by the government food authority under the Food Act, Consumer Protection Act and Excise Ordinance of Sri Lanka. She is responsible for developing, maintaining and monitoring of the laboratory quality management system as a Quality Manager. She conducts lectures and workshops for Medical Officers, Food and Drug Inspectors, Public Health Inspectors and Excise Officers and actively
participates in Drafting Committees of Sri Lanka Standards Institution for formulating new Sri Lankan standards. She also provides analytical and advisory services to the Health Department and other law enforcement authorities

Abstract:

Alcohol abuse is a major problem in Sri Lanka. Alcohol policies cannot be based on religious views, political expediency or tax revenue. Pitfalls in following policies followed in developed societies without regard to the local conditions abound. A sufficient body of evidence based knowledge exists today in the medical literature to help formulate a rational alcohol policy that suits to Sri Lanka. Beside ethyl alcohol almost all alcoholic drinks contain volatile and nonvolatile substances called congeners. Congeners are present in different concentrations depending on beverage type and manufacturing method. Acetaldehyde and methanol are two important toxic volatile congeners in alcoholic beverages. Therefore the levels of methanol and acetaldehyde content are strictly regulated. In this study methanol and acetaldehyde, were determined in different type of local and imported alcoholic beverages
submitted to the liquor laboratory of the Government Analyst’s Department in the year 2016 by the Sri Lanka Excise Department for the tax purpose. Twenty four coconut arrack, five palmyrah arrack, nineteen blended and imported brandy, fourteen imported whisky, eighty four imported red wines and seventy five imported white wines were analyzed. Samples were distilled prior to the
injection and methanol and acetaldehyde were quantified using Gas Chromatography (Shimadzu GC 2010 plus, RTX 624 capillary column) with FID detector. The methanol content of red wine was in the range of 45.8-266.5 ppm, white wine 10.3-196.9 ppm, brandy 9.1- 22.6 ppm, whisky 45.8 -268.6 ppm, and methanol was not detected in coconut and palmyrah arrack, Whereas acetaldehyde content of coconut arrack was in the range of 6.3-36.3 g/hL AA, palmyrah arrack 3.8-9.2 g/hL AA, brandy 5.4-10.4 g/hL AA, whisky
3.1-17.3 g/hL AA, and acetaldehyde was not detected in red and white wine. These results may be useful for risk assessment of acetaldehyde and methanol, and form a scientific foundation for establishing legislative limits in Sri Lanka.

Speaker
Biography:

Sumeet Gullaiya has completed his PhD (Pharmacology and Toxicology) from Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, India. He has worked as an Assistant Professor in a premier research oriented academic organization. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals of national and international repute, authored 3 books, filed 2 patents and is also serving as an Editorial Board Member and Reviewer for reputed journals. Currently, he is working as Product Manager in a leading research chemical manufacturing company, Toronto Research Chemicals (TRC).

Abstract:

Glycerol based process contaminants are commonly found in oils, margarine and in most of the processed foods. These carcinogenic contaminants including 3- and 2- monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and their fatty acid esters have been detected in high quantities in many kids’ products including the infant formulas. These findings let the European Food safety Authority’s (EFSA’s) Panel on contaminants in food chain (CONTAM) to issue a scientific opinion on assessing the human health risk of free and esterified 2 & 3- MCPD in food. The scientific group declared that in addition to palm and vegetable oils, margarine and infant formula, these food contaminant carcinogens may also be present in cookies, pastries and cakes, fried or baked potato products, fried or roast meat and chocolate spreads. Following this, the European Commission, Joint Research Center has come up with a robust and efficient analytical method for the simultaneous determination of these carcinogenic food contaminants. This talk aims to illustrate the rationality of implementing these analytical methods to any organization in the food chain industry, of any country, in order to set goals for food safety. It’s high time for all the stakeholders in food safety to ensure a secure and safe supply of food for their populace.

Speaker
Biography:

Folake Idowu-Adebayo has completed her MSc in Food Quality Control and Assurance at Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria in 2013 and pursuing her PhD at Wageningen University, Netherlands. She is a Lecturer at Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Nigeria. She has published five papers in reputed journals, two proceedings and has attended more than seven conferences, meetings and training workshops within and outside Nigeria.

Abstract:

Street vended food though contribute substantially to the diet of the people, it may at the same time, pose potential health risks. The objectives of this study were to identify possible causes of contamination during production, distribution and handling of street vended fried cocoyam chips. Five processing centers in Ipokia local government area, Ogun state, Nigeria were used for the
study. 15 samples of raw materials and 27 fried cocoyam samples were aseptically collected from different processors along processing line. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis. A laboratory prepared sample was used as control. Total plate counts (×104 Cfu/g) for water, vegetable oil and salt were 0.33 to 15.44, 0.33 to 1.00 and 1.00 respectively for processors I, II III and control. Fungal counts (×103 Cfu/g) for vegetable oil and salt were 0.2 to 1 and 1 respectively. Staphylococcus and coliform counts detected in processor I water sample only were 7.33 cfu/g and 8.33 cfu/g respectively. Total plate (×104 Cfu/g) and fungal counts (×103 Cfu/g)
were 0.33 to 5.00 and 0.58 to 1.89 respectively for the processing stages for the three processors and control. Staphylococcus count (0.33 to 0.633 cfu/g), Salmonella count (3 to 4 cfu/g) and coliform count (0.67 to 6.67 cfu/g) were detected in processor I. Total plate counts 0.33 to 2.33(×104 cfu/g) were detected in the eight street vended sample and were significantly different at p<0.05. The results of this study indicate that consumption of street vended cocoyam chips produced in unhygienic condition may present an important
public health risk.

Speaker
Biography:

Meera Srivastava is Head of Post-graduate Department of Zoology at Dungar College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. She has more than 32 years of Post-graduate Teaching and Research experience in the field of Zoology, especially Entomology, besides sheep, camel and elephant. She is also Convener of Board of Studies in Zoology and member of Academic Council, MGS University, Bikaner. 20 scholars have been awarded MPhil and 17 PhD degrees under her supervision. She has contributed to more than 152 research publications published in journals of national and international repute and in the form of conference abstracts. She has represented more than 76 conferences and has visited United Kingdom, France, Scotland, Italy, Thailand, Dubai, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Nepal and has been invited to deliver talks.

Abstract:

In India, pulses are the most important source of protein but full yield potential of these are seldom realized due to various constraints including damage by pests in storage. Among 14 important insect pests of stored grains, the pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis Linn. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is one which causes considerable qualitative and quantitative loss to stored pulses. Botanical pesticides seem to be one of the best alternate to check the pest population. It was therefore aimed to screen certain plants to explore their ovipositional deterrence against the pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) as a cheap safe and eco-friendly substitute. The culture of pulse beetle C. chinensis was raised on green gram Vigna radiata in incubators maintained at 28+20°C and 70% RH. The select plants were collected from Bikaner, Rajasthan, India (20° N and 73° 17” E, 28 m) and its vicinity. Different parts were separated, cleaned and different extracts using water and organic solvents of various dose concentrations were prepared. Specific
number of adult insects (in pairs) were released in muslin cloth covered beakers containing weighed green gram grains and treated with different dose concentrations (w/v) of formulations. Each experimental set comprised of 10 replicas. Observations for egg laying were recorded after three days in treated/experimental along with normal and control sets and were subjected to statistical analysis. It was observed that some of the plant formulations resulted in none or very low egg lying by the pest insect, suggesting that these could
be used as an alternate and eco-friendly substitute especially against the pulse beetle C. chinensis.

Break: Refreshment Break 16:05-16:25 @ Foyer
  • Poster Presentations 16:25-17:25 @ Foyer
Location: Texas C

Session Introduction

Carlton W. FarleyIII

Alabama A & M University, USA

Title: Rapid raman detection of extra virgin olive oil adulteration
Biography:

Carlton W Farley III has used Raman spectroscopy for detecting a variety of chemicals in the past few years, including explosives, rocket fuel propellants and EMA in food items. He completed his PhD in December 2015 at Alabama A&M University, where he began his research on “Improving EMA detection in extra virgin olive oil as well as honey, flour and baby formula”. He is currently a Research Associate at Alabama A&M University, where he trains graduate students as well as continues research on “Detection of EMA in food items”.

Abstract:

The adulteration of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with cheaper edible oils has been a major concern for consumers for some time. Thousands of truckloads of food products are brought into the US every day, making it impossible to police every truckload using current techniques. In order to police a higher number of oils and other foods imported into the US, we must have a much faster method for detection of EMA in food products. Raman spectroscopy offers such a solution. While the current methods of testing samples taken by the Center for Border Patrol (CBP) involves sending those samples to a lab, and waiting up to three weeks for results, we show a method where each border checkpoint could be equipped with a Raman spectrometer, and with little training, measurements can be made within 5 seconds so that Border Patrol agents can test several samples from each truckload entering the
US. For this study, samples are kept inside clear glass containers, while a 785 nm Raman system is used to take measurements as the Raman probe is placed against the glass container. Several types of oils at various concentrations of adulteration are used. Ratios of peak intensities are used to analyze raw data, which allows for quick, easy and accurate analysis. While conventional Raman
measurements of EVOO may take as long as 2 minutes, all measurements shown here are for integration times of just 5 s. It is found that adulteration of EVOO with cheaper oils is detectable at concentrations as low as 2.5% for all oils used in this study. This is more sensitive than standard techniques, but only requires a fraction of the time to test each sample.

Biography:

Aura Daraba has her expertise in Food Safety and Food Quality, use of natural antimicrobials to control pathogens, use of non-thermal food processing technologies, and implementation of HACCP in Food Industry and in Food Service Units. She has worked extensively along with Dr. Aubrey Mendonca and Dr. Angela Shaw in the use of High Pressure Processing and use of Natural Antimicrobials to control pathogens in foods.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: In recent years several disease outbreaks were linked to unpasteurized juices contaminated with human enteric pathogens such as Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (CDC 2011; EFSA 2015). While heat pasteurization and canning can inactivate vegetative pathogens, such processes can destroy heat labile nutrients and negatively alter sensory characteristics of juices. Also growing consumer demands for foods which are nutritious, fresh-like, and devoid of synthetic preservatives, have
forced juice manufacturers to explore non-thermal processes and natural antimicrobials for pathogen control in juices. The present study investigated the effect of low concentrations of cinnamaldehyde combined with high pressure processing (HPP) for killing S. enterica in carrot juice (CRJ) and a mixed berry juice (MBJ) at 4ºC.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: CRJ (pH 6.25) and MBJ (pH 3.59) with added cinnamaldehyde (0.10, 0.15 and 0.25 μl/ml) were inoculated with S. enterica (5-strain; final concentration ~107 CFU/ml). Inoculated juices without added cinnamaldehyde served as control. Juices (4ºC) were packaged in polyester pouches and pressurized (400 or 300 MPa) for 60, 90 and 120 seconds. The time between inoculation and HPP was approximately 1.5 hours. Salmonella survived for 42 days or more in control CRJ following HPP
(400 MPa) for 30, 60, or 120 s. Addition of cinnamaldehyde to juices increased the sensitivity of S. enterica to HPP. Cinnamaldehyde (0.25 μl/ml) combined with 400 MPa (60 s) inactivated S. enterica by more than 5.5-log in CRJ. In MBJ, cinnamaldehyde (0.15 μl/ml) with a lower pressure (300 MPa for 120 s) resulted in complete inactivation (negative enrichment) and greater than a 5-log10 CFU/ ml reduction of S. enterica.
Conclusion & Significance: The use of CA in conjunction with HPP has good potential to serve as an alternative process for heat pasteurization of juices and meet the 5-log reduction performance standard as stipulated in the juice HACCP regulations.

Biography:

James B Stukes is an Associate Professor of Biology/Biology Program Coordinator in Department of Biological and Physical Sciences at S C State University. He completed his PhD in Microbiology at Atlanta University. He has served as Principal Investigator for several grants, written various publications, and presented his work at numerous conferences. He was named as University Teacher of the Year, Outstanding Young Man of America, served as a member of the Governor’s Mathematics and Science Advisory Board, and Who’s Who among America’s Teachers. He currently serves as Co-Principal Investigator of the Evans-Allen 1890 Food Safety Research Grant funded
by the USDA.

Abstract:

South Carolina grows and exports products such as peanuts and corn, to various countries around the world. However, these products may contain the mold Aspergillus flavus or Aspergillus parasiticus, species of fungi which produce aflatoxin. Aflatoxins can cause damage to the lungs, kidneys, brain, and heart. Because of the harm these toxins pose, a food safety survey was administered to SC farmers to ascertain their level familiarity with aflatoxins. The results indicated that of the 190 farmers surveyed, 58% reported
they never heard of it, 26% revealed they somewhat knew about it, while only 16% definitely knew about. To determine the presence of aflatoxin levels in corn, the Vicam Afla-V test reader was used. This device accurately detects the presence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 levels ranging from 2 ppb to 100 ppb. To analyze the corn samples, they were blended finely and weighed to 5 g. The ground samples were then inserted into an extraction tube containing 25 ml of 70% MeOH and vortexed for 2 minutes. The samples were filtered and 100 μl were placed on the Afla-V test strips. The test strips were placed into the reader and aflatoxin levels were obtained within 5 minutes. The results indicated that 3 of the 11 corn farms tested, had higher levels than the 25 ppb recommended by the USDA. Informing and educating the farmers about the seriousness of aflatoxins is paramount. Furthermore, farmers who produce
crops with lower levels of aflatoxins, have a greater chance of exporting their crops in an increasingly competitive global market. Future experiments will involve testing various treatments to decrease the levels of aflatoxin associated with corn.

Break: Panel Discussion Session Adjournment