Day 2 :
- Track 1: Impact of Food and Water Security
Track 2: Food Safety Regulatory Affairs
Track 3: Food Safety and Agronomics
Nikolaos E Mavroudis
Northumbria University, United Kingdom
American Overseas Dietetic Association, Lebanon
Safe Food Production Queensland
Title: Birds, bacteria and baselines: Managing campylobacter through-chain to improve public health outcomes
Time : 10:00-10:20
Phil has a Bachelor of Economics (Major in Law) from the University of Queensland, together with qualifications in Quality Assurance and auditing. Phil started his working life in the Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries in Queensland. Responsibilities within the Department included fisheries management and the Fishing Industry Appeals Tribunal. During a period as a private consultant Phil has also worked with the Department regarding fishing areas and fishing quotas and surveys on Hinchinbrook and Hayes Inlet. Returning to the Department in September 1997, Phil led the review of the Queensland Livestock and Meat Authority and the Queensland Abattoirs Corporation. This resulted in his appointment to the Meat Industry Taskforce in the Department of State Development where he was instrumental in drawing up the contracts for the sale of publicly owned abattoirs. As a result of this work, Phil was commissioned to draft new legislation for primary production food businesses leading to the implementation of the Food Production (Safety) Act 2000. Since joining Safe Food Production Queensland in 2001 Phil has been General Manager of the Compliance, Strategy and Response area with responsibility for legal matters/legislation, finance, funding arrangements and operational matters and is currently overseeing key operational projects in compliance. Phil is a member of the Executive Management Group and is Safe Food’s representative on a number of national committees and working groups in relation to food safety. Phil has also been seconded to Food Standards Australia New Zealand to assist with food legislative training in Vietnam and China and has also delivered a paper in Dublin on food safety matters.
Salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis represent the two most numerically significant gastrointestinal conditions observed in Queensland, Australia. There have been increasing rates of infection involving these pathogens observed on a local and national scale, with notification rates more than doubling since 1993. This trend has also been reflected internationally, with significantly high rates of Campylobacter being previously reported in the European Union, the United Kingdom and the United States. Hypothesis
Although it is generally accepted that there is a high level of consumer awareness regarding the need to thoroughly cook chicken prior to consumption, following a significant spike in the number of reported campylobacteriosis cases in North Queensland in 2011 a hypothesis was proposed that the rise in cases was emanating from the ineffective management of control barriers in place in poultry meat processing facilities. This in turn resulted in poultry meat with a higher bacterial load being supplied to the market, increasing the risks associated with mishandling, undercooking and cross-contamination.
Data collection and analysis
Safe Food Production Queensland (SFPQ) initially developed a poultry meat supply chain map which resulted in the identification of one processor as the potential contributor to the rise in campylobacteriosis cases. With the cooperation of the processor SFPQ undertook a process to evaluate the effectiveness of the food safety measures currently in operation. As a component of this evaluation, SFPQ committed to undertake a systematic scientific and technical assessment of the chicken meat industry production and processing chain.
At this stage, the hypothesis was refined – to propose that intensive and active monitoring of critical processes at four separate verification points would provide an effectual series of “barriers” able to verify control measures taken through the chain, as opposed to relying upon periodic monitoring, process mechanisation and end-point assessment as was previously the case. When this was applied at the processing facility levels of campylobacter and salmonella on final product which were sampled over a period of time were found to have significantly reduced.
Primarily, this examination delivered an industry baseline that identified and documented critical control points through this chain, in order to provide an opportunity to efficiently control pathogens associated with poultry meat. Following this work SFPQ formed a working-group partnership with accredited poultry meat processors to regularly consult on baseline development, report on assessment results and agree on on-going industry targets and protocols for the assessment of compliance into the future.
To examine the effectiveness of the developed baseline, a study was conducted in all large- and medium-scale poultry processing facilities in the state of Queensland, representing more than 95% of chicken meat produced in the state. Samples were collected on two occasions from four specific points along the processing chain, reflecting the identified critical monitoring and control points to assess process control measures over time during the implementation period.
Epidemiological data gathered prior to the initiation of the baseline and associated study, as reported by the public health sector, indicated that a steadily increasing rate of campylobacteriosis was appearing in Queensland. After the first sampling period was completed and the results of this testing along with the implementation of the baseline was undertaken by processors, substantial improvements in the mean reduction of Campylobacter were observed. As a result, despite the industry target for Campylobacter on final product carcases being exceeded, public health data indicated a significant reduction in the number of campylobacteriosis notifications received.
SFPQ analysis and work with the poultry industry has since been expanded to include all thirteen poultry processors. An independent economic analysis of the new methodology was finalised in 2014 by Synergies Economic Consulting. The report models the costs and benefits of the implementation of the methodology over a ten year period – from 2012 to 2021. The modelling estimates that the benefits from the reduction in cases of Campylobacter will provide a present value benefit of $70.7 million. When costs are factored into the modelling the net benefit to the community is expected to be $40.7 million over 10 years.
Cardiff Metropolitan University
South Wales UK
Time : 10:20-10:40
Deborah is in the final stages of completing her PhD at Cardiff Metropolitan University, where she started as a part-time undergraduate in 2001, while working as Technical director in a manufacturing high-risk, chilled food company. She achieved an MSc in 2008 and a PGCthE in 2013, while carrying out research for the PhD. Deborah is a fellow of the Royal Society of Public Health and the Higher Education Academy and works as an international third party auditor and trainer. Deborah originally worked in the meat trade and has professional experience in food manufacturing, retailing and training, spanning some 30 years.
Research has shown that there are still huge gaps in job specific and industry based training within the food industry. There are many operatives in the workplace who are not able to achieve the industry qualifications they require, due to the complexities of language barriers and writing skills. Unchallenged, this could either obstruct the employment of some foreign workers, or conversely, create a sector of untrained employees who are not legally compliant. This inevitably invites the all-important question of ‘what risk does this pose to food safety’? We see a stark contrast in the lack of help and facilities in the workplace to the structured approach developed within the academic sphere where Internationalism has been expedited and driven over recent years. While training of immigrant workers presents many challenges, it is a very real issue that needs to be addressed. The number of working-age foreign-born people in the UK increased from 2.9 million in 1993 to more than 6 million in 2013 A program of research was carried out to develop food industry training programs for unskilled or semi-skilled workers with English as a foreign language. The research focused on teaching methods, collaborative learning and assessment method and evaluated the influence of training on working practice. This area of discussion is taken from research on Food Safety and HACCP training in the Food Industry. The focus being to reduce the impediments to training, increase its effectiveness and cross international barriers to make food industry training effective and available to all.
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
Title: The use of schizosaccharomyces yeasts in order to reduce the content of biogenic amines and Ethylcarbamate in wines
Time : 10:40-11:00
Santiago Benito is university professor in Madrid Polytechnic. He is the director of Madrid University Experimental Winery, a scientific center. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.
Even wine is a comfortable food product from a Food Safety point of view, due to the presence of ethanol and the lack of nutrients able to be assimilated by pathogenic microorganisms. During the last years it have been reported the presence of high levels of biogenic amines and ethylcarbamate in wines. These compounds can produce serious diseases in wine consumers, so new technologies in order to reduce their levels must be applied in winemaking. In recent years, interest in novel, specific uses of the Schizosaccharomyces genus in modern oenology has increased, even though it is not the most common yeast genus used in oenology. One important feature of Schizosaccharomyces is its ability to reduce the content in urea (main precursor of ethylcarbamate) during fermentation processes due to its high urease activity. Another important ability from a food safety point of view is this genus ability to consume malic acid contained in wines that is the main nutrient source of the lactic bacteria responsible of biogenic amines production in wine. These two points are of interest for food safety.
Title: Factors explaining differences in FSMS performance in supply chains of fresh produce: A global study
Time : 11:15-11:35
Pieternel Luning graduated at Wageningen University in Food Chemistry & Microbiology, was researcher at ATO-DLO and completed her PhD (flavour) in 1995. After a post-doc (Unilever), she worked as product manager “innovative packaging” at TNO Nutrition. Since 2000 she is employed at Wageningen University as lecturer and since 2006 as associate Professor Food Quality Management. She developed the MSc-program “Food Quality Management”, supervises 10-15 PhDs and 20 MSc-students. She is author/editor of several books, participated in various national and EU-projects (PathogenCombat, Veg-i-trade). Current research areas include risk-based auditing, system dynamics modelling, food safety culture, quality management assessment tools, food waste reduction, sustainability assessment, and quality perception.
An international study investigated the performance of Food Safety Management Systems (FSMS) implemented in the food companies in different stages of the supply chain (primary production, processing and trade) and in different world locations. More than 300 food companies participated in the study, located both in developed and developing countries. Data was collected by using a diagnostic instrument to assess the performance of food safety management systems (low, basic, average, advanced), their output (poor, moderate, good), and the riskiness of the context factors (low, moderate, high). The majority of the companies were producing high-risk products in terms of their vulnerability to microbiological and chemical contamination. Statistical data analysis revealed that companies do not group per chain stage, type of product (risk) or country of operation. Instead other factors explain the grouping. Companies with most advanced FSMS operate in low risk of organisational characteristics, and they put more efforts into assurance activities such as validation and verification. Another factor that contributes to better performing FSMS was attributed to chain characteristics, especially in the case of export-oriented companies located in developing countries.
Universidade de Trás-os-
Montes e Alto Douro
Time : 11:35-11:55
Samuel Migueis, Veterinary Captain, graduated in Veterinary Medicine in 2007 by Academia Militar e Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária-UTL, being Veterinary Officer on Portuguese Army until now.He took Master degree on Food Safety in 2010 by FMV-UTL, guiding his career and training in food safety and defence systems, with some opinion articles published on this matter. He has worked as an Assistant Teacher at UTAD on integrated Master of Veterinary Medicine since 2014. Currently he is attending the PhD course in Veterinary Science at UTAD, researching microbiota of sashimi with one paper published.
With a new food policy after BSE crisis, European Union published the “Hygienic Package” with the aim of promoting food safety from “Farm to fork”. To achieve this objective, food establishments in Europe must comply with strict food legislation that requires they have a food safety system implemented based on seven HACCP principles. The implementation of this system has been a hard task in Japanese traditional restaurants with raw fish specialities, like sashimi. This happens because the more frequent Critical Control Points (CCP) are on freezing and refrigeration stages. It is impossible, until now, to implement a CCP to reduce or eliminate the presence of pathogenic bacteria during or after preparation stage.
Good hygiene practices in this type of culinary specialties are determinant on final microbiota, but it’s necessary to realise if they are being sufficient to eliminate or reduce hazards at an acceptable level. In Europe, in contrast with Asian countries such as Japan, the presence of pathogenic bacteria like Vibrio parahaemolyticus is not frequent, nevertheless other pathogenic species such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes have been found. Some microbiological European studies have also showed non-pathogenic microbiota in sashimi at high levels in some cases, which causes final depreciative quality levels. It seems we must keep on doing some research on this field to ensure a continuous improvement of food safety systems and guarantee that all people, including the risk groups, can eat sashimi safely.
University of the Philippines
Title: Reduction of Organophospahate and Carbamate Residues in Tomatoes, String Beans and Chinese Pechay by Soaking and Washing
Time : 11:55-12:15
Aimee Sheree A. Barrion is a licensed Nutritionist-Dietitian in the Philippines. She is an Associate Professor at the Institute of Human Nutrition and Food, College of Human Ecology, UP Los Baños(UPLB). She got her BS Nutrition, MS Applied Nutrition and PhD in Food Science degrees at UPLB. She has been teaching at the University for more than 15 years. Before her teaching stint, she used to work as a foodservice manager for two years at KFC South Manila branches. Aside from teaching, Dr. Barrion has extended numerous works as resource person, trainer and evaluator in different local and national food and nutrition activities and projects. She is also an active member of several professional organizations in the field of nutrition and dietetics. In terms of research, she has presented a number of papers and posters in different scientific fora. She has also accumulated a list of non-ISI and ISI publications. Her field of research interests lie on food and nutrition and food safety. Her future plans include developing a natural antimicrobial wash formula for cleaning foodservice utensils and equipment and also aid local government in ensuring and maintaining food safety among the various small and medium scale foodservice units.
Introduction: While pesticides are known to safeguard food supply, many people are concerned about its indiscriminate use such as during the fruiting stage of crops and usual practice of not adopting safe waiting periods which leads to accumulation of pesticide residues in consumable vegetables. The efficiency of washing and soaking on pesticide removal in tomatoes, string beans and Chinese pechay using tap water and vinegar solution was determined. Methods:The rapid test kit for pesticide developed at the National Crop Protection of the University of the Philippines Los Banos of the was utilized to determine the reduction of organophospahate and carbamate residues in the tomatoes, string beans and Chinese pechay samples after washing and soaking using tap water and vinegar solution. Results:Washing and soaking were significantly different from each other with the following order of efficiency: soaking for 5 minutes >soaking for 2 minutes > washing. The reduction in organophospahate and carbamate residues when the fruit and vegetable samples were washed in tap water and vinegar solution ranged from 26-31%, 15-16 % and 12-59%, 21-80%, respectively. Upon soaking for 5 minutes in tap water and vinegar solution, the reduction in organophospahate and carbamate residues ranged from 74-100%, 81-100% and 57-86%, 67-83%, respectively.No significant difference on the effect of washing solutions used (tap water and organic washing solution) was noted. Reduction in the concentration of organophospahates residues was higher than the reduction in the concentration of carbamates residues in tomatoes and Chinese pechay soaked for 5 minutes in different solutions. Conclusions: Vegetables are deemed to be nutritious and determining the specific amount of pesticide reduction is crucial in assessing its food safety risk to safeguard the health of the consuming public.
University of Venda
Title: Food safety knowledge and food-handling practices of women responsible for food preparation in the households of mangweni village of ehlanzeni district in mpumalanga province, South Africa
Time : 12:15-12:35
Tirhani Asnath Masia is a Lecturer at the University of Venda, South Africa. She started her academic career at the age of 23 years. She is a registered Nutritionist with Health Professions Council of South Africa holding a Master of Science in Public Nutrition. She is taking up her academic career as she is currently enrolled for Post-graduate Diploma in Health Professional Education with University of Cape Town. Her research interest on food safety was built from Food Science module that she teaches the undergraduates. She is also interested in maternal and child health
Objectives: The study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge and food-handling practices among women responsible for food preparation in the households of Mangweni village with regard to food safety.
Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. Data were collected from 120 women responsible for food preparation through face-to-face questionnaire. Data was statistically analysed using SPSS.
Results: The age distribution of women ranged from 19 to 43 years with the mean age of 29.9 (SD = ±1.39). 58.3% of the women had attained secondary level of education and 33.3% had tertiary education. The findings on the level of food safety knowledge revealed that 1.6% of the women had adequate knowledge, 53.9% had satisfactory knowledge and 44.5% had limited knowledge. Age and educational level had no influence on the level of food safety knowledge. With regard to food-handling practices, women reported good practices in some of the aspects. For example, 56.7% of the women washed hands with soap and water before handling food and 51.7% place frozen meat at the lower shelf of the trolley at the end of shopping trip.
Conclusion: The results show the need of educational initiatives on food safety practices in the households among women as they usually the one responsible for food preparation.
Ahmadu Bello University
Title: Household salt iodization level and urinary iodine concentration of children attending public primary schools in Zaria, north-west Nigeria
Time : 12:35:12:55
Dorcas B. James has a PhD in Biochemistry from Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria in 2007, where she lecture, rose through dedication and hard work to her royal position of Associate Professor. She’s presently a student of nutritional toxicology and actively engage in research and teaching in the area of Nutrition, food Science and Toxicology. She has contributed many major activities in reputed local and international journal and actively engages as consultant to UNICEF on various aspect of community and public health nutrition that had major impact on the nutritional status of the vulnerable groups within the populace.
An iodine deficiency results in inadequate dietary iodine intake, which is related to a spectrum of diseases collectively referred to as Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDDs) and also worsens child mortality. Iodization of salt is widely regarded as the most effective and sustainable long-term public health measure for the prevention and control of IDDs. This cross-sectional survey involved 400 people randomly selected from four public, primary schools which was designed to assess the proportion of house-hold of the children (4-11 years) using iodized salts, the level of salt iodization and their mean urinary iodine concentration. The result revealed that about 79% of the children in public, primary schools are at risk of Iodine Deficiency Disorder (IDD) with mean Urinary Iodine Concentration (UIC) of 82.08+35.71 μg/l. The mean and median iodine concentrations of household salt were 27 mg/kg (95% confidence interval: 25–29 mg/kg) and 30 mg/kg (range=0–155 mg/kg), respectively. Coverage of adequately iodized household salt with iodization at >15 mg/kg was 96% of households. Haematuria, protunuria and bilirubinuria were dectected respectively in the urine sample of 9%, 81% and 1% of the pupils. People at the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum were more likely to suffer the consequences of using under-iodized salt because mostly they use agricultural or coarse salt than, people in the higher socio-economic categories. The consequences of using under-iodized or non-iodized salt were most likely to be experienced in Zaria, among people in the low socio-economic status especially in remote households. Since 96% of household salts are safe in term of iodization level, the national iodization programme has the potential to meet the iodine requirements of the population. However, this can only be achieved if the primary reasons for the in-adequate iodization of salt are eliminated and if special attention is given to vulnerable groups.
Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI)
Time : 12:55-13:15
Shomar is working as a research director at Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI) and leading the group of Environmental and Chemical Sciences. His scientific research focuses on strategies that meld field and laboratory methods with new theory, modeling, computation, data systems, and evaluative techniques to create solutions to complex environmental challenges associated with desalination programs in Qatar. The general framework is to (1) Assess the quality of the source water; (2) Understand the chemistry behind the treatment (desalination) technology; and (3) Evaluate the quality of finished water & its potential effects on human health. The major researcha ctivities of his group include the water quality and reuse, the groundwater recharge and the atmospheric chemistry.
More than 60 rice samples have been collected from the local markets of Qatar and additional 20 rice samples have been collected from the West Bengal, India. Total arsenic and other trace metals have been analyzed using ICPMS. New methods have been developed to study the bioavailability of arsenic including synthetic stomach and small intestine. Studying arsenic speciation is challenging and the study tried to use LAICPMS to address the distribution of the As within the rice grains.
The purpose of this talk is to highlight the total concentration of arsenic (and other trace elements) in rice; the bioavailability tests, the speciation and the potential toxicity.
- Young Researcher Forum
National Chain Food Safety Office, Hungary
Nikolaos E Mavroudis
University of Lincoln
Title: Challenges to food hygiene and safety: Comparing selected schools in Lincoln- UK and the ashanti region of ghana
Time : 14:00-14:15
Patricia Foriwaa Ababio did her BSc in Agriculture, MSc in Food Safety and Control from Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology and PhD in Food Science and Technology from University of Lincoln, UK. At present she is working as a Lecturer at University of Education, Winneba, Ghana.
The demands and requirements on food laws remain the same across continents as food hazards and related risks present the same hazard to individuals internationally including school going age children and adolescents. Different nations are however burdened with different economic and developmental issues which affect the importance attached to food law requirements. Whilst the demands on food safety and hygiene remains stringently upheld, implemented and maintained in the United Kingdom the same could not be said of Ghana, a developing country in Africa. The absence of infrastructure, facilities, human resource with requisite knowledge and lack of law enforcement remain the battle to be fought for a unified food hygiene and safety practice across the globe.
Title: The prevalence of bacterial contamination and microbial diversity using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, of commercial eggs from retails market in Scotland.
Time : 14:15-14:30
Mohammed Alawi a phD student in Heriot-Watt University ,School Of Life Science Microbiology Department.
In this study, the aim was to describe bacterial diversity of table eggs using both culture and molecular approach. Total viable counts (TVCs) were obtained from shell and content of 88 commercial eggs in Scotland. Eggs from 3 different sources were sampled including organic farm (22 eggs), free range (33 eggs), and caged system (33 eggs). Free range eggs had higher TVCs isolated from eggshell, a mean of 5.5 logs CFU/eggshell, and 5.2 log (caged eggs) CFU/eggshell. Egg content ranged from 3¬¬ log (organic egg) to 2.4 log (caged egg) cfu/ml. ANOVA test showed no significant difference between the two variables TVCs and housing system for both eggshell, and content respectively (p <0.14, 0.59). 59 bacterial isolates were genotyped by 16SrRNA sequencing. The results obtained indicate large number of eggs inspected was contaminated with Staphylococcus bacteria. Among the bacterial strains isolated (59 in total), Staphylococcus equorum was the most occurring strain (32%), followed by Micrococcus luteus (17%), and rest of the sequences were less than (10%). No evidence was found for presence of Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, or Clostridium perfringens.The proportion of Gram-positive bacteria was significantly higher than Gram-negative bacteria (p<0.05). It can be concluded that table eggs sold in Edinburgh’s groceries were of good quality for human consumption.
Coimbra Health School
Time : 14:30-14:45
Ana Lúcia Baltazar is a Professor in Coimbra Health School for the graduated course of “Dietetic and Nutrition”, attending the PhD in “Food Quality” in FCT-UN Lisbon, with certifications in various post-graduate studies, Food Safety - HACCP auditor, and a Master in Occupational Safety. She is a dedicated and qualified Dietitian, with ten years of experience, a strong technical background, proven in management skills and an “agent for change”. She has exceptional experience in monitoring progressive food industry and providing training, knowledge of food safety requirements and quality standards in food manufacturing.
Food safety is a growing concern among consumers in more developed countries. In this context, food safety occupies a place of increasing importance to the increasingly informed consumer, knowledgeable and aware of what they want and especially what not to eat. This is also the social and economic context that arise niche markets, opportunity to offer differentiated or specific products aimed at a consumer audience that can (and want) to pay the difference. Here fit the traditional products associated with the idea of lack of industrialization and mass, but rather with a strong grounding, the tradition, uses of the past, art know-how. This study aimed to develop a food safety system for an industry of Portuguese sausages based in Leiria district. To do this, we used the methodology Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) to assess hazards and quantify the risks that may affect consumer health. The study was conducted in four steps based on the framework of the HACCP Plan. This work identified a number of gaps in the food safety system of the company under study, as well as using strategies to improve the operation of the company and ensure the safety of meat products marketed.
Magdalena Kupska is PhD student in Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdańsk University of Technology.
The word “superfruit” has been recently introduced to the nomenclature. It comprises 13 natural products among which can be found fruits, vegetables, corns and tea. These food ingredients introduced into human diet bring many health benefits and can easily enhance well-being. The term superfruits is considered as a new marketing approach to promote the demand for rare fruits which can be consumed as foodstuffs or used as ingredients by manufacturers of functional foods, neutricals, beverages. However, gaining the popularity of health-oriented superfruits on market depends heavily on both research results and appropriate marketing. Fruits which contain powerful bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, anthocyanins, terpenes or procyanidins, with high antioxidant capacity may be classified as a superfruits.
One of the most interesting compounds are terpenes. Terpenes are the group of fruity origin compounds, with more than 40 000 known molecules among which are more than 400 known monoterpenes. Many terpenes have bioactive properties and often determine the flavour and taste of fruits. Moreover terpenes and terpenoids are the main components of essential oils.
Due to the large number of volatile compounds and the complexity of investigated fruits, a novel tool to measure and compare fruits aroma, comprehensive multi-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) was used. The time of flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) has been used in the identification of components (such as terpenes) in complex fruit samples.
The University of the West Indies
Trinidad and Tobago
Time : 15:00-15:15
Gideon Ramtahal completed his PhD in Analytical Chemistry at the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago in 2012. His PhD was centered on the investigation of heavy metal levels in cocoa beans in Trinidad and Tobago and later focused on cadmium. He is avidly working on his publications and is currently pursuing postdoctoral research in the remediation of cadmium in cocoa at the Cocoa Research Centre, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
Within recent years, continued export of Trinidad and Tobago’s fine or flavour cocoa beans may be affected by increasingly stringent international regulations; governing its safety with contaminants such as cadmium. A preliminary survey of cadmium in cocoa tissues including cocoa beans and soil from Trinidad and Tobago has been completed. This study has confirmed that beans from some areas failed to meet proposed standards for cadmium. Significant correlations of cadmium concentration between cocoa beans, other cocoa tissues and soil were observed, with some findings having implications for food safety assessments. Additionally, several possible sources of cadmium contamination of local cocoa beans have been identified. Subsequent treatment methods needed to minimize cadmium uptake and accumulation in cocoa beans were applied and evaluated with promising results.
University of Salford
Time : 15:15-15:30
Tasila Mwale is a student in University of Salford Manchester.
Arsenic toxicity is still a major public health issue associated with cancer and other health disorders. The majority of studies on arsenic toxicity have focused on the exposure due to water intake, with very few studies on exposure from food consumption. This is of major concern as current research clearly shows that in Europe alone, inorganic arsenic; the most toxic form accounts for only 5% in water and 95% in food. Rice is a significant source of arsenic exposure. With over half of the world population relying on rice as a staple and increasing dependence on rice based products, a significant proportion of the population is in danger of arsenic toxicity. In addition, there is limited research on biomarkers of toxicity and the direct health effects of arsenic from rice intake. It is therefore crucial that investigation into arsenic exposure from rice consumption is carried out. A comparison study between populations with different susceptibility towards arsenic exposure will be executed. A general UK population with no background arsenic exposure (for example, from water contamination) and an Indian population with environmental exposure to arsenic will be compared to determine the health effect of arsenic toxicity caused by dietary rice intake. Total arsenic in rice and urine will be estimated by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Urinary arsenic speciation will be measured by Ion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS), to determine arsenic metabolism; which is a good indicator of inorganic arsenic exposure. The use of protein misfolding and aggregation as a biomarker of arsenic toxicity will also be evaluated. Preliminary results from this study will be presented at the conference.
Lomonosov Moscow State University
Title: State regulation of the SMEs in the Russian food market as an element of ensuring food security of the country
Time : 15:30-15:45
Ekaterina Silanteva is the scientist from Moscow. The field of her interests is SMEs and their competitive advantages. She has been working on this problem for six years. Ekaterina completed Specialist degree programme at School of public administration at Lomonosov Moscow State University, and has continued her studies as PhD student. She is author of the project which won at nomination in competition of innovations , she used to work as deputy director for development in Association of food manufacturers and suppliers.
In the conditions of sanctions growth, Russia has faced the need to import the substitution of the European goods and the need to provide food security of the country without the aid of the European partners. Russian Federation was the huge developing market that imported different commodities from all over the world. However, Russia has had her own potential for manufacturing of different goods but this potential wasn\'t realized because of the high level of corruption and wrong economic policy of the government. In this situation due to the decrease of oil prices the national currency has fallen twice. This led to the enormous growth of prices on the commodities goods and the decline in the quality of the products provided to the population. Especially this problem has concerned the food market.
That is why it is very important now to create the institutional environment that is necessary for development of sustainable economy and the own food manufacturing. The Government should provide the support to resource-efficient SMEs and regulate economic processes thus to increase the competitive advantages of the national companies and to provide the population with high quality and safe products. Without any doubts, competitive small and medium-sized enterprises play the strategic role for ensuring product security of the country. The system of competitive advantages of the company consists of market, resource and network competitive advantages. The state has the wide range of opportunities to support all these competitive advantages within the space provided by the WTO.
University of Queensland
Title: Metabolomic profiling of Kakadu plum (Terminalia ferdinandiana) – A native plant of Australia
Time : 15:45-16:00
Mridusmita (Smita) Chaliha is currently pursuing her PhD from The University of Queensland, Australia. Her research focuses on elucidating therapeutic potential of Australian native plants in ameliorating/inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways. Smita is also involved in a number of research programs that investigate the microbial ecology and aim to understand the dynamics of growth, survival and biochemical activity of microorganisms in a wide range of food systems.
Kakadu plum (KP, Terminalia ferdinandiana) is a traditional food that has been consumed for its nutritional and therapeutic value by indigenous Australians for thousands of years. A rise in the incidence of chronic and degenerative diseases has been remarkably prevalent in developing countries, posing an enormous challenge in allocating limited resources to competing health concerns, heralding an urgent need to examine novel therapeutic approaches including dietary intervention, to combat debilitating health issues. One major research trend is the search for functional foods and ingredients from plants with enhanced bioactive and nutritional properties. Recent studies have indicated the presence of high levels of ascorbic acid and ellagic acid in KP fruit, making it a rich source of antioxidants and an ideal candidate for further investigation to explore its potential.
GC-MS based non-targeted metabolite profiling of polar extracts of the KP fruit, seeds and leaves identified 158 chemically diverse metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, phenolic acids, esters and sugars. As expected ascorbic acid and gallic acid (with anti-oxidant anti-fungal, anti-viral properties) were detected in the samples. Previously unreported metabolites such as galacturonic acid, rhamnose, xylitol, xylulose, maltose, myo-inositol and palatinose have been tentatively identified in KP extracts.
Understanding the KP metabolites will help in identifying new sources of therapeutics that target the debilitating oxidative and inflammatory cascade which is the hallmark of many chronic degenerative disorders. This enhanced knowledge will greatly assist in developing more strategic uses of KP in such diverse industries of functional food, pharmacology, nutraceutical, and cosmetic
National R&D Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies
Title: Elemental profile and Sr isotope ratio as fingerprints for geographical traceability of Romanian Wines
Time : 16:15-16:30
Geana Elisabeta-Irina is scientific researcher at National R&D Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies – ICIT Rm. Valcea, Romania and also is in the final stages of completing her PhD at Bucharest University, Romania.The main current interests are identification and quantification of essential active principles like phenolic compounds, organic acids, amino acids, terpenes, micro and macronutrients in different food matrices (wine, honey, fruits, plants, organic products, functional foods) by highlighting key biomarkers used in authentication, using the main instrumental analytical (HPLC, UV-VIS, ICP-MS). She was involved in several national projects: CEEX, PN II, sectoral project and Nucleus Programme (2005-2015) with the aim to develop analytical methods for quality control and origin authentication of foods.
Wine geographical traceability is an important topic in the context of wine authentication and for that, many researchers from worldwide have been addressed this subject, by developing different methodologies based on multivariate analysis of natural chemical composition data (inorganic or organic parameters) and isotopic signature. The goal of this work was to assess the potential of the elemental composition and strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) of wines from the important producing areas in Romania, located in relatively small geographical area, in order to highlight reliable markers for wines geographical origin discrimination. Elemental determinations were done by ICP-MS and F-AAS techniques after microwave acid digestion of the wine samples. The strontium isotope ratio (87Sr /86Sr) from resulted extracts was determined by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS), after separation of strontium from rubidium, using cation-exchange chromatography with Dowex 50W-X8 resin and the complexation ability of the carboxylic acid EDTA. The variation in elemental composition (Li, Sr, Se, Ni, Pb, U, Mn, Mg, Al) and the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the wine samples analyzed in this study clearly demonstrated that these parameters are suitable tracers of wines origin. The proposed methodology allowed a 100% successful classification of wines.
Izmir Institute of Technology
Title: Development of whey protein based composite and blend edible films with pH controlled release properties intended for active packaging
Time : 16:30-16:45
Derya Boyacı is a PhD student and a research assistant in İzmir Institute of Technology. She has written her MSc thesis at the same university on active packaging. She had been a researcher in a research project funded by TUBITAK. Ahmet Yemeniicioğlu is currently professor of Food Engineering at the İzmir Institute of Technology since 2007. He has published more than 36 papers in international journals. His research field includes the development of novel active packaging materials.
Films made of whey protein isolate (WPI), WPI-oleic acid blend films and WPI-bees wax composite films containing lysozyme were produced and the released enzyme activities were measured in buffered solutions at pH 3.0-6.0 and in smoked salmon discs. WPI films (pI≈5.2) bound considerable amount of lysozyme due to their inherent net negative charge at pH values close to neutrality. The release of bound lysozyme could be triggered as pH of release medium reduced from 6.0 to 3.0, down below the pI of WPI. The addition of oleic acid and bees wax into WPI film increased the film porosity and amounts of released lysozyme. The released enzyme activity had increased similarly when the blend and composite films were applied on smoked salmon discs. All of the films showed good antimicrobial activity against Listeria innocua. Results showed the possibility of activating antimicrobial WPI films by simply initiating lysozyme release with acidification of edible films and the potential of creating pH-controlled release systems which could be employed to improve safety of food stored in home type refrigerators.
Istanbul Technical University
Time : 16:45-17:00
F Ayca Ozdemir Olgun completed his PhD from Istanbul Technical University and is pursuing her Post-doctoral studies at the same University. She also works as a Professor in Istanbul Aydin University, Health Services, Vocational School of Education. She has published 5 papers in reputed journals and has served as a reviewer of more than 15 manuscripts submitted in reputed journals.
Color is added to our food since many centuries. Today, the health concerns about the food colorants lead the food industry to focus on natural colorants. Colorants are basically divided into two main groups as synthetic and natural food colorants. As a result of the toxic and carcinogenic effects of some synthetic food colorants, their utilization is limited by the regulations defined by the governments. Synthetic colorants are preferred for their stability and low-cost in food processes. But their misusage may cause damage in human health. When choosing the right colorant, the regulations should guide. The aim of this study is to determine the synthetic colorants used as the food additives by fast, accurate and applicable methods by developing and investigating novel methods for the determination of synthetic food colorants, analyzing synthetic colorant content of food products and providing food control by informing consumers about the limitations of these substances. Aiming the issues above, spectrophotometric CUPRAC assay was adapted for the determination of synthetic food colorants. Proposed method results were correlated with HPLC findings and combination of in-vitro antioxidant assays with HPLC technique (application of online HPLC- CUPRAC technique) were performed. The results proved that the methods used for the determination of synthetic food colorants are accurate, applicable and are in good correlation.
Trainee in Asian Collaboration for Excellence in Non-communicable Disease (ASCEND) Research Network
Title: Relationship between feeding type and the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk of high yielding dairy cows
Time : 17:00-17:15
G S Sumanasekara has completed BVSc (Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine) degree from University of Peradeniya and postgraduate diploma and Masters of Food and Nutrition degree from University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. She is the deputy director of the Department of Animal Production and Health. She was a director of the former Ministry of Economic Development and member of the National Nutrition Steering Committee of the country. Further she employed at the Asian Development Bank Funded project as an Environment Specialist and also worked for the United Nations Development Program funded project as a deputy project coordinator. At present she is a researcher of the Asian Collaboration of Excellence in Non Communicable Diseases Funded by US-NIH.
The major problem associated with concentrate feeds used for feeding cattle is declining quality by contamination with Aflatoxins. The objectives of the study were to detect presence of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) levels in milk, AFM1 levels related different feeds and to identify the relationship between feed type and Aflatoxin M1 in milk. Ten dairy farms located in Nuwara-Eliya district were randomly selected. AFM1 analysis was done using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that AFM1 was present in 50% of samples. Coconut poonac showed the most significant relationship among individual feeds having a correlation of 0.65 and P value of 0.042. Among feed combinations, coconut poonac and beer pulp combination showed the highest correlation of 0.77 and P value of 0.05. Grasses had shown a very poor relationship with the AFM1 occurrence in milk (r=0.053, P=0.885). Relationship between overall concentrate feeds in the study and AFM1 in milk, it was clear that they had a significant relationship having correlation of 0.65 and P value of 0.042. Majority of samples lied between 0-10 ng L-1 of AFM1 and one sample exceeded above 30 ng L-1. Two samples had AFM1 concentrations between 22-32 ng L-1. One sample lied between 32-42 ng L-1 did not exceed the EU recommended level of 50 ng L-1. The presence of AFM1 in milk under various management and feeding conditions is yet to be investigated in Sri Lanka.
University of Reading
Title: Consumer’s psychological reactions during a food safety incident and WTP for nano sensors in meat products
Time : 17:15-17:30
Junjie Wu (1987) has completed his two master degrees of Food technology and Food economics from University of Reading. He has won the prize of the competition of Entrepreneurship at Reading University in 2010. He is a PhD candidate working on the aspect of consumer behaviour towards food safety.
Risk communication disseminated during a food safety incident, which plays an important role in shaping consumer purchasing behaviour. Consumer research shows that immediately after a food safety incident the demand of the indicted products falls rapidly and then starts to increase slowly when consumer confidence is restored. However, very little is known about the cognitive process that consumers undertake when markets are shocked by food scares. In order to fill such a gap this study employs Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to explore consumers’ psychological reactions with and without a food safety incident caused by E. coli in chicken products. The cognitive process of protection is mediated by the possibility of consumers buying hypothetical meat products containing Nano-sensors that aims to inform consumers of the presence of bacteria after the purchase. Willingness to Pay (WTP) of meat products containing nano-sensors was elicited by means of a payment card. The survey was conducted in the UK between February and March 2015 and 627 British respondents took part in the survey. A Tobit regression analysis was performed to estimate the impact both of socio-demographic and economic characteristics of respondents and of the cognitive elements of PMT on consumers’ WTP for nano-sensors in chicken products during different risk situations. Results indicate that on the average British respondents are WTP more for nano-sensors during a market risk situation. Furthermore, the comparison of PMT elements in different risk situations shows that the cognitive elements of this theoretical framework play a different role in explaining WTP for nano-sensors. In the case of a business, as usual scenario, the demand for increased levels of food safety was more affected by the aspects of coping appraisal, while during a food safety incident, the elements of threat appraisal take over and impact substantially on WTP for nano-sensors in meat products. In addition, results also show that WTP is influenced by gender, age, financial situation of consumers, and knowledge of nanotechnology. Marketing and policy implications of these findings are discussed.
University College Dublin
Republic of Ireland
Time : 17:30-17:45
Mohammed H AlRizeiqi is a PhD candidate of Food Process Policy, Global Development at University College Dublin, Ireland. His project title is: \"development of process value chain to the seafood industries in Oman: The analysis of current seafood process value chain and the economic impact of developing process supply chain to the seafood industries in Oman\". Mohammed is currently assessing the benefits of implementing a traceability system to the export of seafood products from Oman. Mohammed main research interests include: Food and Beverage Process Value Chain, Food economic analysis, Food Policy and Regulations and Global Human Development.
Traceability system for Omani seafood industries are assessed for the process design, compliance to seafood law, qualitative and quantitative cost benefit analysis CAB. The selected industries are the largest in term of supply, process, employment and value. The increased prevelance of food scandals in the recent years has led to increased attention on food traceability to find ways to protect human, animal health and avoid adulteration. An infected/contaminated product recall and market withdraw are costly for firms and governmental reputation. Safe seafood becomes a major choice for many consumers around the globe. Under such circumstances, a seafood traceability system can be an innovative method to develop consumer’s confidence in the fisheries products. However, the economical benefits of a traceability system is still not clear for producers, distributors, retailers and policy in many newly developing emerged markets.
Oman is rich in fisheries resources. The country has around 3,165 km long coastline with an exclusive economic zone area of 300,000 km2 from Strait of Hormuz in the North (Governorate of Musandam) to the border with Republic of Yemen in the South (Governorate of Dhofar). The annual fish export was in the range of 120 thousand metric tons of fish and seafood. The country has entered to the valued EU markets since 1986. In the last ten years, the country lost most of it’s share in the Eurpoean market due to many legal and technical issues in the process value chain. However, the study is useful for practitioner, buisinesses and policy makers regarding the perceived benefits of traceability in the Omani fish supply chain. The Net Present Value NPV is calculated for Oman Fisheries Co. and the value indicates a wider benefit from the implementation of integrated traceability system. Seafood traceability is analyzed using both statistical and financial tool models. The Net Present Value (NPV) was calculated for 5 and 10 years traceability Implementation. The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) was calculated based on the 2% discount rate ( r=2%) for the 10 years period of implementation. Both qualitative and quantitative results showed an extra impact of traceability to the export of fisheries product from Oman to the EU markets.
Title: Investigating the impact of different lethality inducing conditions on cells of Bacillus Subtilis via flow cytometry
Time : 17:45-18:00
Catherine Bowe graduated from Northumbria University in 2010 in Applied Biology. In 2011 she began her PhD under the supervision of Dr. Nikos Mavroudis studying probiotic viability, which she completed in July 2015. Now she is working as a research associate on an NIHR project exploring the potential of progressive cuisine for quality of life improvement for head and neck cancer survivors. Her research interests include bacterial Flow cytometry, Food microbiology and probiotics.
Decontamination of surfaces is a vitally important process in industrial settings. Bacillus subtilis spores are a good safe alternative to model pathogenic organisms such as B. cereus and Clostridium difficile. In this communication a range of novel and commonly used antimicrobials are applied to cells and spores of B. subtilis. By looking for alternative antimicrobial agents, this could have far reaching implications for use against antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. Furthermore, employing natural antimicrobials will have a less detrimental effect on the environment. Common methods of cell killing
• Heating 85˚C for 35 minutes is our standard method
• A 50% Ethanol (water) treatment is used to kill off vegetative cells (leaving spores unharmed)
• Peracetic acid (PAA)- a strong oxidizing agent thought to be capable of killing spores as well as cells
• Chlorine- oxidizing agent commonly used in bleach
• Green tea extract –believed to exert an antimicrobial effect due to tea polyphenols5, 6
Aim: to assess the efficacy of both common and novel antimicrobials as bactericidal and sporicidal agents Test these antimicrobials on cells of Bacillus subtilis, comparing the results of the FCM analysis with serial dilution plating
• Antimicrobials PAA and Chlorine both have high bactericidal effects, with PAA being the most effective antimicrobial causing 100% cell death. Previous research indicates this has the potential to kill spores as well as cells1.
• Green tea extract also has an impact on viability, with around a 1log reduction in cell number.
• Green tea caused more cells to become damaged or membrane permeabilised as opposed to completely killed. Demonstrated by a strong double staining with PI and Syto 16.
• Findings such as these highlight the significance of FCM as a descriptive tool, as plating or fluorescent microscopy would not give us information as to the numbers of damaged cells. It is also highly significant when one considers the lack of FCM enumeration data available. FCM is a good method to enumerate sub-populations, based on a strong correlation with plate counts.